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In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

Hwang YJ, Lee EJ, Kim HR, Hwang KA - BMC Complement Altern Med (2013)

Bottom Line: The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects on the various cancer cell lines, and these effects were stronger than those induced by the P. vulgaris var. lilacina solvent fractions.We confirmed that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract and water fraction significantly increased the expression of p53, Bax and Fas.These results suggest that the ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions could be applied as natural sources of antioxidants and anticancer activities in food and in the pharmaceutical industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agrofood Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 441-853, Republic of Korea. kah366@korea.kr.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions.

Methods: Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR.

Results: The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects on the various cancer cell lines, and these effects were stronger than those induced by the P. vulgaris var. lilacina solvent fractions. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death. We confirmed that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract and water fraction significantly increased the expression of p53, Bax and Fas.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions could be applied as natural sources of antioxidants and anticancer activities in food and in the pharmaceutical industry.

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Effects of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina on RAW264.7 cells as determined by the MTT assay. Cells were treated with solvent fractions of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina at different concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL). After treatment for 24 h, cell viability was measured with the MTT assay. Values are the mean ± SEM; different marks within treatments indicate significant differences at *p < 0.05 compared to the PBS group.
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Figure 2: Effects of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina on RAW264.7 cells as determined by the MTT assay. Cells were treated with solvent fractions of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina at different concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL). After treatment for 24 h, cell viability was measured with the MTT assay. Values are the mean ± SEM; different marks within treatments indicate significant differences at *p < 0.05 compared to the PBS group.

Mentions: In order to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of all samples, we performed a preliminary cytotoxicity study with RAW264.7 cells exposed to various sample concentrations (10, 50, or 100 μg/mL). The P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract (at 50 and 100 μg/mL), hexane fraction (at 100 μg/mL) and chloroform fraction (at 50 and 100 μg/mL) inhibited cell proliferation, but did not at a concentration of 10 μg/mL (Figure 2). Conversely, the groups treated with 10 μg/mL of ethanol extract or butanol fraction or treated with 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of the water fraction showed a proliferative effect of over 10%. Macrophages are specialized phagocytic cells that attack foreign substances and cancer cells through destruction and ingestion. They also stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to pathogens [33]. These results suggest that the ethanol extract, butanol and water fractions of P. vulgaris var. lilacina can be used in the treatment of cancer. Based on this result, we determined the appropriate concentration to be 10 μg/mL.


In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

Hwang YJ, Lee EJ, Kim HR, Hwang KA - BMC Complement Altern Med (2013)

Effects of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina on RAW264.7 cells as determined by the MTT assay. Cells were treated with solvent fractions of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina at different concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL). After treatment for 24 h, cell viability was measured with the MTT assay. Values are the mean ± SEM; different marks within treatments indicate significant differences at *p < 0.05 compared to the PBS group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4226201&req=5

Figure 2: Effects of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina on RAW264.7 cells as determined by the MTT assay. Cells were treated with solvent fractions of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina at different concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL). After treatment for 24 h, cell viability was measured with the MTT assay. Values are the mean ± SEM; different marks within treatments indicate significant differences at *p < 0.05 compared to the PBS group.
Mentions: In order to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of all samples, we performed a preliminary cytotoxicity study with RAW264.7 cells exposed to various sample concentrations (10, 50, or 100 μg/mL). The P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract (at 50 and 100 μg/mL), hexane fraction (at 100 μg/mL) and chloroform fraction (at 50 and 100 μg/mL) inhibited cell proliferation, but did not at a concentration of 10 μg/mL (Figure 2). Conversely, the groups treated with 10 μg/mL of ethanol extract or butanol fraction or treated with 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of the water fraction showed a proliferative effect of over 10%. Macrophages are specialized phagocytic cells that attack foreign substances and cancer cells through destruction and ingestion. They also stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to pathogens [33]. These results suggest that the ethanol extract, butanol and water fractions of P. vulgaris var. lilacina can be used in the treatment of cancer. Based on this result, we determined the appropriate concentration to be 10 μg/mL.

Bottom Line: The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects on the various cancer cell lines, and these effects were stronger than those induced by the P. vulgaris var. lilacina solvent fractions.We confirmed that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract and water fraction significantly increased the expression of p53, Bax and Fas.These results suggest that the ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions could be applied as natural sources of antioxidants and anticancer activities in food and in the pharmaceutical industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agrofood Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 441-853, Republic of Korea. kah366@korea.kr.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions.

Methods: Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR.

Results: The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects on the various cancer cell lines, and these effects were stronger than those induced by the P. vulgaris var. lilacina solvent fractions. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death. We confirmed that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract and water fraction significantly increased the expression of p53, Bax and Fas.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions could be applied as natural sources of antioxidants and anticancer activities in food and in the pharmaceutical industry.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus