Limits...
Estrogen signaling in metabolic inflammation.

Monteiro R, Teixeira D, Calhau C - Mediators Inflamm. (2014)

Bottom Line: However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties.In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field.Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Medical Investigation Center, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
There is extensive evidence supporting the interference of inflammatory activation with metabolism. Obesity, mainly visceral obesity, is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, triggered by metabolic surplus where specialized metabolic cells such as adipocytes activate cellular stress initiating and sustaining the inflammatory program. The increasing prevalence of obesity, resulting in increased cardiometabolic risk and precipitating illness such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and certain types of cancer, constitutes a good example of this association. The metabolic actions of estrogens have been studied extensively and there is also accumulating evidence that estrogens influence immune processes. However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties. In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field. Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Estrogens effects on metabolic improvement may be cause (a) or consequence (b) of regulation of inflammation pathways. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationship between estrogen signaling, inflammation, and metabolism. It is possible that the anti-inflammatory effects of estrogens, though their influences on processes like energy balance, leptin and glucocorticoid signaling, adipose tissue distribution and cellularity, and activity of immune cells, may culminate on metabolic improvement. However, estrogens have also been demonstrated to directly interfere with such processes, favoring improved inflammatory profile that results in overall metabolic amelioration. Additionally, the two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. AT: adipose tissue.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4226184&req=5

fig4: Estrogens effects on metabolic improvement may be cause (a) or consequence (b) of regulation of inflammation pathways. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationship between estrogen signaling, inflammation, and metabolism. It is possible that the anti-inflammatory effects of estrogens, though their influences on processes like energy balance, leptin and glucocorticoid signaling, adipose tissue distribution and cellularity, and activity of immune cells, may culminate on metabolic improvement. However, estrogens have also been demonstrated to directly interfere with such processes, favoring improved inflammatory profile that results in overall metabolic amelioration. Additionally, the two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. AT: adipose tissue.

Mentions: Evidence on the ability of estrogens to modulate metabolism-related inflammation is accumulating, although many questions remain unanswered. The independent influence of these hormones on each of these isolated areas of research is much more solid than the understanding that, through the modulation of inflammatory processes, estrogens are able to influence metabolic dysfunction. However, the relationship between esterogens and metabolism are reciprocal since the metabolic control favored by estrogens avoids the establishment of metabolic inflammation (Figure 4). The interdependence of both processes makes the studies of these matters elaborate as do the variation of estrogens' effects with timing of treatment, dose, type of estrogen used, physiological state of the organism, body composition, gender and availability of other hormones, and the multiple cellular pathways available for estrogen signaling. The recent demonstration of ubiquitous presence in living organism of xenobiotic molecules with endocrine disrupting properties with the ability to change estrogen signaling and largely impact on metabolism also deserves attention and may provide clues to the epidemic growth of obesity-related metabolic complications (Figure 5) [210–213]. Even so, there is general agreement that estrogens improve inflammation related to metabolic dysfunction and, although it seems evident that it acts indirectly through metabolic amelioration, the direct regulation of inflammation pathways is also documented. However, much work still needs to be performed in this respect to allow broadening the knowledge on estrogens' mechanisms of action and establishing the rationale for the development and use of estrogen signaling modulation as a therapeutic tool for metabolic improvement. Looking at the advances made on sister areas of research such as those related to the study of the inflammation-modulatory effects of estrogens on cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer [70, 72, 74] will possibly bring new additions to the mechanisms of estrogens' actions in metabolism.


Estrogen signaling in metabolic inflammation.

Monteiro R, Teixeira D, Calhau C - Mediators Inflamm. (2014)

Estrogens effects on metabolic improvement may be cause (a) or consequence (b) of regulation of inflammation pathways. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationship between estrogen signaling, inflammation, and metabolism. It is possible that the anti-inflammatory effects of estrogens, though their influences on processes like energy balance, leptin and glucocorticoid signaling, adipose tissue distribution and cellularity, and activity of immune cells, may culminate on metabolic improvement. However, estrogens have also been demonstrated to directly interfere with such processes, favoring improved inflammatory profile that results in overall metabolic amelioration. Additionally, the two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. AT: adipose tissue.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4226184&req=5

fig4: Estrogens effects on metabolic improvement may be cause (a) or consequence (b) of regulation of inflammation pathways. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationship between estrogen signaling, inflammation, and metabolism. It is possible that the anti-inflammatory effects of estrogens, though their influences on processes like energy balance, leptin and glucocorticoid signaling, adipose tissue distribution and cellularity, and activity of immune cells, may culminate on metabolic improvement. However, estrogens have also been demonstrated to directly interfere with such processes, favoring improved inflammatory profile that results in overall metabolic amelioration. Additionally, the two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. AT: adipose tissue.
Mentions: Evidence on the ability of estrogens to modulate metabolism-related inflammation is accumulating, although many questions remain unanswered. The independent influence of these hormones on each of these isolated areas of research is much more solid than the understanding that, through the modulation of inflammatory processes, estrogens are able to influence metabolic dysfunction. However, the relationship between esterogens and metabolism are reciprocal since the metabolic control favored by estrogens avoids the establishment of metabolic inflammation (Figure 4). The interdependence of both processes makes the studies of these matters elaborate as do the variation of estrogens' effects with timing of treatment, dose, type of estrogen used, physiological state of the organism, body composition, gender and availability of other hormones, and the multiple cellular pathways available for estrogen signaling. The recent demonstration of ubiquitous presence in living organism of xenobiotic molecules with endocrine disrupting properties with the ability to change estrogen signaling and largely impact on metabolism also deserves attention and may provide clues to the epidemic growth of obesity-related metabolic complications (Figure 5) [210–213]. Even so, there is general agreement that estrogens improve inflammation related to metabolic dysfunction and, although it seems evident that it acts indirectly through metabolic amelioration, the direct regulation of inflammation pathways is also documented. However, much work still needs to be performed in this respect to allow broadening the knowledge on estrogens' mechanisms of action and establishing the rationale for the development and use of estrogen signaling modulation as a therapeutic tool for metabolic improvement. Looking at the advances made on sister areas of research such as those related to the study of the inflammation-modulatory effects of estrogens on cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer [70, 72, 74] will possibly bring new additions to the mechanisms of estrogens' actions in metabolism.

Bottom Line: However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties.In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field.Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Medical Investigation Center, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
There is extensive evidence supporting the interference of inflammatory activation with metabolism. Obesity, mainly visceral obesity, is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, triggered by metabolic surplus where specialized metabolic cells such as adipocytes activate cellular stress initiating and sustaining the inflammatory program. The increasing prevalence of obesity, resulting in increased cardiometabolic risk and precipitating illness such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and certain types of cancer, constitutes a good example of this association. The metabolic actions of estrogens have been studied extensively and there is also accumulating evidence that estrogens influence immune processes. However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties. In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field. Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus