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Community dynamics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an estuary reservoir.

Sun Z, Li G, Wang C, Jing Y, Zhu Y, Zhang S, Liu Y - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Microorganisms located the reservoir inlet were founded to be different from those in rear at both phylum and genus level.Air temperature had a stronger effect than sampling location on the microbial community structure.Total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were algae-monitoring indicators during the whole year.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Handan Road, 200433, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
This study demonstrates both prokaryotic and eukaryotic community structures and dominant taxonomies in different positions of the greatest estuary reservoir for drinking water source in the world in four seasons of one year using 454 pyrosequencing method with total of 312,949 16S rRNA and 374,752 18S rRNA gene fragments, including 1,652 bacteria OTUs and 1,182 fungus OTUs. During winter and spring, the community composition at the phylum level showed that microorganisms had similar structures but their quantities were different. Similarly, obvious changes at the genus level were observed among the samples taken in winter and spring between summer and fall. Microorganisms located the reservoir inlet were founded to be different from those in rear at both phylum and genus level. Air temperature had a stronger effect than sampling location on the microbial community structure. Total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were algae-monitoring indicators during the whole year. Moreover, Bacillus was an efficient indicator during summer and autumn for bacteria OTUs.

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(a–b) Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) biplot of the distribution of prokaryote and eukaryote communities with environmental variables in estuary reservoir. The upper right legend shows color-coding indicating six groups in estuary reservoir. group 1: 0226, group 2: 0328, 0410, 0426, group 3: 0529, 0621, group 4: 0712, 0725, 0807, 0828, group 5: 0911, 0913, 1011, group 6: 1029.
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f5: (a–b) Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) biplot of the distribution of prokaryote and eukaryote communities with environmental variables in estuary reservoir. The upper right legend shows color-coding indicating six groups in estuary reservoir. group 1: 0226, group 2: 0328, 0410, 0426, group 3: 0529, 0621, group 4: 0712, 0725, 0807, 0828, group 5: 0911, 0913, 1011, group 6: 1029.

Mentions: Statistical analysis of 16S rRNA showed that because of the different time-site treatments, environmental variables and bacterial characteristics were different between seasons and stations, particularly among the dominant species (Fig. 5a). The total eigenvalues in the 16S rRNA data set accounted for 2,687,740. The total eigenvalues explained by environmental eigenvalues accounted for 779,902, occupying 29.0% of the total RDA explanatory power. Concerning the variation of species data, the first axis explained 55.1%, the first and second axes together explained 76.7%. The first axis explained 16.5% of the variation of species-environment relation, the first and second axes together explained 26.1%. Biplot scaling of redundancy discriminate analysis (RDA) with original data were shown in Fig. 5a and S3a. Both Temperature and MC_RR got 0.001 Pr with 999 number of permutations based on the 1‰ level in a permutation test for all constrained eigenvalues for prokaryotes. Corresponding values were 0.002 for TN and 0.01 for DO, and greater than 0.05 for transparency, CODMn, etc. Therefore, four environmental factors, Temperature, MC_RR, TN and DO, were significant environmental variation for bacteria. Moreover, it made a statistically significant contribution from Bacillus to the species-environment relationship (P = 0.001, F = 2.9513, number of permutations = 1,000). The higher contents of TN and CODMn as well as increase in chlorophyll-a and Bacillus and in activity were observed for partial samples from Groups 4 and 5 (0828, 0911, and 0913) when the air temperature during sampling decreased from 30.5°C to 28.8°C. The increase in Synechococcus related to activity was observed for partial samples of Groups 3 and 4 (0621, 0712, 0725, and 0807). However, the lower air temperature of samples resulted in higher DO values as well as growth in MC_LR. Compared with the effect of sites, these observations indicated that different air temperatures drastically changed the bacterial community structure. Given the rapid growth of Microcystisaeruginosa when air temperature decreased from 30.5°C to 28.8°C, researchers should pay more attention to monitoring indices such as Temperature, MC_RR and TN or the sudden abnormal appearance of Bacillus.


Community dynamics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an estuary reservoir.

Sun Z, Li G, Wang C, Jing Y, Zhu Y, Zhang S, Liu Y - Sci Rep (2014)

(a–b) Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) biplot of the distribution of prokaryote and eukaryote communities with environmental variables in estuary reservoir. The upper right legend shows color-coding indicating six groups in estuary reservoir. group 1: 0226, group 2: 0328, 0410, 0426, group 3: 0529, 0621, group 4: 0712, 0725, 0807, 0828, group 5: 0911, 0913, 1011, group 6: 1029.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4225533&req=5

f5: (a–b) Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) biplot of the distribution of prokaryote and eukaryote communities with environmental variables in estuary reservoir. The upper right legend shows color-coding indicating six groups in estuary reservoir. group 1: 0226, group 2: 0328, 0410, 0426, group 3: 0529, 0621, group 4: 0712, 0725, 0807, 0828, group 5: 0911, 0913, 1011, group 6: 1029.
Mentions: Statistical analysis of 16S rRNA showed that because of the different time-site treatments, environmental variables and bacterial characteristics were different between seasons and stations, particularly among the dominant species (Fig. 5a). The total eigenvalues in the 16S rRNA data set accounted for 2,687,740. The total eigenvalues explained by environmental eigenvalues accounted for 779,902, occupying 29.0% of the total RDA explanatory power. Concerning the variation of species data, the first axis explained 55.1%, the first and second axes together explained 76.7%. The first axis explained 16.5% of the variation of species-environment relation, the first and second axes together explained 26.1%. Biplot scaling of redundancy discriminate analysis (RDA) with original data were shown in Fig. 5a and S3a. Both Temperature and MC_RR got 0.001 Pr with 999 number of permutations based on the 1‰ level in a permutation test for all constrained eigenvalues for prokaryotes. Corresponding values were 0.002 for TN and 0.01 for DO, and greater than 0.05 for transparency, CODMn, etc. Therefore, four environmental factors, Temperature, MC_RR, TN and DO, were significant environmental variation for bacteria. Moreover, it made a statistically significant contribution from Bacillus to the species-environment relationship (P = 0.001, F = 2.9513, number of permutations = 1,000). The higher contents of TN and CODMn as well as increase in chlorophyll-a and Bacillus and in activity were observed for partial samples from Groups 4 and 5 (0828, 0911, and 0913) when the air temperature during sampling decreased from 30.5°C to 28.8°C. The increase in Synechococcus related to activity was observed for partial samples of Groups 3 and 4 (0621, 0712, 0725, and 0807). However, the lower air temperature of samples resulted in higher DO values as well as growth in MC_LR. Compared with the effect of sites, these observations indicated that different air temperatures drastically changed the bacterial community structure. Given the rapid growth of Microcystisaeruginosa when air temperature decreased from 30.5°C to 28.8°C, researchers should pay more attention to monitoring indices such as Temperature, MC_RR and TN or the sudden abnormal appearance of Bacillus.

Bottom Line: Microorganisms located the reservoir inlet were founded to be different from those in rear at both phylum and genus level.Air temperature had a stronger effect than sampling location on the microbial community structure.Total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were algae-monitoring indicators during the whole year.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Handan Road, 200433, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
This study demonstrates both prokaryotic and eukaryotic community structures and dominant taxonomies in different positions of the greatest estuary reservoir for drinking water source in the world in four seasons of one year using 454 pyrosequencing method with total of 312,949 16S rRNA and 374,752 18S rRNA gene fragments, including 1,652 bacteria OTUs and 1,182 fungus OTUs. During winter and spring, the community composition at the phylum level showed that microorganisms had similar structures but their quantities were different. Similarly, obvious changes at the genus level were observed among the samples taken in winter and spring between summer and fall. Microorganisms located the reservoir inlet were founded to be different from those in rear at both phylum and genus level. Air temperature had a stronger effect than sampling location on the microbial community structure. Total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were algae-monitoring indicators during the whole year. Moreover, Bacillus was an efficient indicator during summer and autumn for bacteria OTUs.

Show MeSH