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On being attracted to the possibility of a win: reward sensitivity (via gambling motives) undermines treatment seeking among pathological gamblers.

Sztainert T, Wohl MJ, McManus JF, Stead JD - J Gambl Stud (2014)

Bottom Line: We also tested those motivations to gamble that are positively reinforcing (social affliction and self-enhancement) as a possible mechanism by which reward sensitivity undermines treatment seeking-we did not anticipate negatively reinforcing motivations (e.g., coping) to be a mechanistic variable.Reward sensitive gamblers did not wish to seek treatment to the extent that they were motivated to gamble for the social interactions it provides-seeking treatment would cut this avenue of affiliation with others.In light of these results, we suggest health care professionals take reward sensitivity into account when trying to promote treatment seeking, to say nothing of the social affiliation motives that underlie the reward sensitivity-treatment seeking link.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Unfortunately, only a small percent of pathological gamblers seek the professional help they need. In the current study, we test the idea that individual differences in reward sensitivity should predict whether a pathological gambler has sought treatment-the odds of treatment seeking should decrease as reward sensitivity increases. This hypothesis rests on the proposition that reward sensitive pathological gamblers should find treatment seeking aversive because doing so would remove a route to reward. We also tested those motivations to gamble that are positively reinforcing (social affliction and self-enhancement) as a possible mechanism by which reward sensitivity undermines treatment seeking-we did not anticipate negatively reinforcing motivations (e.g., coping) to be a mechanistic variable. Ninety-two pathological gamblers completed a large-scale survey that contained the variables of interest. As predicted, pathological gamblers were less likely to have sought treatment as reward sensitivity increased. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by social affiliation motivations to gamble, but not self-enhancement or coping motives. Reward sensitive gamblers did not wish to seek treatment to the extent that they were motivated to gamble for the social interactions it provides-seeking treatment would cut this avenue of affiliation with others. In light of these results, we suggest health care professionals take reward sensitivity into account when trying to promote treatment seeking, to say nothing of the social affiliation motives that underlie the reward sensitivity-treatment seeking link.

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Mediation model with reward sensitivity as the independent variable, social motives to gamble as the mediator, and treatment seeking as the dependent variable. The unstandardized coefficients and standard error shown in parentheses reflect the inclusion of the mediator into the equation. Unstandardized coefficients and standard error with a single asterisk indicate a significant path at p < .05; double asterisk indicate a significant path at p < .01
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Fig1: Mediation model with reward sensitivity as the independent variable, social motives to gamble as the mediator, and treatment seeking as the dependent variable. The unstandardized coefficients and standard error shown in parentheses reflect the inclusion of the mediator into the equation. Unstandardized coefficients and standard error with a single asterisk indicate a significant path at p < .05; double asterisk indicate a significant path at p < .01

Mentions: To determine whether gambling motives mediated the relationship between sensitivity to reward and problem gambling, Barron and Kenny’s (1986) regression procedure for testing mediation was used. As demonstrated by the previously reported regression analyses, reward sensitivity is a predictor of gambling for both enhancement and social motives, but only social motives was a significant predictor of treatment seeking. As such, social motivation to gamble (but not enhancement) was a viable potential mediator according to Barron and Kenny’s procedure. Thus, we proceeded to test the full mediation model with only social motives as a possible mediator. Importantly, when social motives was added into a mediating model, the direct effect between sensitivity to reward and treatment seeking became non-significant, B = −1.46, Wald’s χ2 (1) = 1.90, p = .17. See Fig. 1.Fig. 1


On being attracted to the possibility of a win: reward sensitivity (via gambling motives) undermines treatment seeking among pathological gamblers.

Sztainert T, Wohl MJ, McManus JF, Stead JD - J Gambl Stud (2014)

Mediation model with reward sensitivity as the independent variable, social motives to gamble as the mediator, and treatment seeking as the dependent variable. The unstandardized coefficients and standard error shown in parentheses reflect the inclusion of the mediator into the equation. Unstandardized coefficients and standard error with a single asterisk indicate a significant path at p < .05; double asterisk indicate a significant path at p < .01
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4225050&req=5

Fig1: Mediation model with reward sensitivity as the independent variable, social motives to gamble as the mediator, and treatment seeking as the dependent variable. The unstandardized coefficients and standard error shown in parentheses reflect the inclusion of the mediator into the equation. Unstandardized coefficients and standard error with a single asterisk indicate a significant path at p < .05; double asterisk indicate a significant path at p < .01
Mentions: To determine whether gambling motives mediated the relationship between sensitivity to reward and problem gambling, Barron and Kenny’s (1986) regression procedure for testing mediation was used. As demonstrated by the previously reported regression analyses, reward sensitivity is a predictor of gambling for both enhancement and social motives, but only social motives was a significant predictor of treatment seeking. As such, social motivation to gamble (but not enhancement) was a viable potential mediator according to Barron and Kenny’s procedure. Thus, we proceeded to test the full mediation model with only social motives as a possible mediator. Importantly, when social motives was added into a mediating model, the direct effect between sensitivity to reward and treatment seeking became non-significant, B = −1.46, Wald’s χ2 (1) = 1.90, p = .17. See Fig. 1.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: We also tested those motivations to gamble that are positively reinforcing (social affliction and self-enhancement) as a possible mechanism by which reward sensitivity undermines treatment seeking-we did not anticipate negatively reinforcing motivations (e.g., coping) to be a mechanistic variable.Reward sensitive gamblers did not wish to seek treatment to the extent that they were motivated to gamble for the social interactions it provides-seeking treatment would cut this avenue of affiliation with others.In light of these results, we suggest health care professionals take reward sensitivity into account when trying to promote treatment seeking, to say nothing of the social affiliation motives that underlie the reward sensitivity-treatment seeking link.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Unfortunately, only a small percent of pathological gamblers seek the professional help they need. In the current study, we test the idea that individual differences in reward sensitivity should predict whether a pathological gambler has sought treatment-the odds of treatment seeking should decrease as reward sensitivity increases. This hypothesis rests on the proposition that reward sensitive pathological gamblers should find treatment seeking aversive because doing so would remove a route to reward. We also tested those motivations to gamble that are positively reinforcing (social affliction and self-enhancement) as a possible mechanism by which reward sensitivity undermines treatment seeking-we did not anticipate negatively reinforcing motivations (e.g., coping) to be a mechanistic variable. Ninety-two pathological gamblers completed a large-scale survey that contained the variables of interest. As predicted, pathological gamblers were less likely to have sought treatment as reward sensitivity increased. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by social affiliation motivations to gamble, but not self-enhancement or coping motives. Reward sensitive gamblers did not wish to seek treatment to the extent that they were motivated to gamble for the social interactions it provides-seeking treatment would cut this avenue of affiliation with others. In light of these results, we suggest health care professionals take reward sensitivity into account when trying to promote treatment seeking, to say nothing of the social affiliation motives that underlie the reward sensitivity-treatment seeking link.

Show MeSH