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Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

Reisinger RR, Oosthuizen WC, Péron G, Cory Toussaint D, Andrews RD, de Bruyn PJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results.Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%).Severe immediate reactions were never observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging.

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Immediate behavioural reactions to satellite tagging and biopsy sampling.Frequency of different immediate behavioural reactions of killer whales at Marion Island to tagging and biopsy sampling.
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pone-0111835-g004: Immediate behavioural reactions to satellite tagging and biopsy sampling.Frequency of different immediate behavioural reactions of killer whales at Marion Island to tagging and biopsy sampling.

Mentions: All responses corresponded to ‘no response’ and ‘low response’ in [1]. Several animals turned on their sides – they seemed to be looking at the arbalester, but may have been looking at the impact site (as described by [58]). Some animals rolled a number of times when tagged. Both such reactions were scored as 2 (Table 1); where the rolls were combined with an extended dive or flight the reactions were scored as 3. The most frequent reaction to a miss was 0 (no reaction), while the most frequent reaction to a hit was 1 (Figure 4). This was typically a slight acceleration, immediate submergence and/or a shake of the body (cf.[58]) (Table 1). Such responses were often so slight that they were difficult to see, even when reviewing video footage.


Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

Reisinger RR, Oosthuizen WC, Péron G, Cory Toussaint D, Andrews RD, de Bruyn PJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Immediate behavioural reactions to satellite tagging and biopsy sampling.Frequency of different immediate behavioural reactions of killer whales at Marion Island to tagging and biopsy sampling.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222950&req=5

pone-0111835-g004: Immediate behavioural reactions to satellite tagging and biopsy sampling.Frequency of different immediate behavioural reactions of killer whales at Marion Island to tagging and biopsy sampling.
Mentions: All responses corresponded to ‘no response’ and ‘low response’ in [1]. Several animals turned on their sides – they seemed to be looking at the arbalester, but may have been looking at the impact site (as described by [58]). Some animals rolled a number of times when tagged. Both such reactions were scored as 2 (Table 1); where the rolls were combined with an extended dive or flight the reactions were scored as 3. The most frequent reaction to a miss was 0 (no reaction), while the most frequent reaction to a hit was 1 (Figure 4). This was typically a slight acceleration, immediate submergence and/or a shake of the body (cf.[58]) (Table 1). Such responses were often so slight that they were difficult to see, even when reviewing video footage.

Bottom Line: Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results.Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%).Severe immediate reactions were never observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus