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Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult mouse brain.

Bordiuk OL, Smith K, Morin PJ, Semënov MV - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain.The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream.The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: New England Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Bedford Division, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital, Bedford, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, can be observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain. We used 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to map the location of proliferating cells throughout the entire adult mouse brain and found that neurogenesis occurs at two locations in the mouse brain. The larger one we define as the main proliferative zone (MPZ), and the smaller one corresponds to the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The MPZ can be divided into three parts. The caudate migratory stream (CMS) occupies the middle part of the MPZ. The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream. The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer. We have not found any additional aggregations of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain that could suggest the existence of other major neurogenic zones in the adult mouse brain.

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Transition between the Caudate Migratory Stream (CMS) and Rostral Migratory Stream (RMS) and the RMS and olfactory bulbs (OB).A–C. Transition between the CMS and RMS. The RMS in the adult mouse brain departs from the most anterior end of the caudoputamen (CP). A. The distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles (shown as yellow dots) has no overlap with the distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS (shown as lilac dots). B. The distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the dorsal and lateral caudate walls (shown as blue dots) overlaps with the distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS (shown as lilac dots). C. Transverse section of the mouse brain stained for EdU. EdU-labeled nuclei in the caudate walls are shown with blue arrows, in the RMS with lilac arrows, in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles with yellow arrows and the point of transition between the caudate walls and the RMS with red arrows. D, E. Transition between the RMS and OB. The stream of proliferating cells in the RMS does not extend into the olfactory bulbs. EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS are shown as lilac dots and in the OB as olive dots. EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS and OB are shown as they are located in the mouse brain (D) or virtually separated by 4 mm to show that the stream of proliferating cells in the RMS does not extend into the OB (E). 120 days-old mouse one hour post EdU injection.
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pone-0111453-g008: Transition between the Caudate Migratory Stream (CMS) and Rostral Migratory Stream (RMS) and the RMS and olfactory bulbs (OB).A–C. Transition between the CMS and RMS. The RMS in the adult mouse brain departs from the most anterior end of the caudoputamen (CP). A. The distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles (shown as yellow dots) has no overlap with the distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS (shown as lilac dots). B. The distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the dorsal and lateral caudate walls (shown as blue dots) overlaps with the distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS (shown as lilac dots). C. Transverse section of the mouse brain stained for EdU. EdU-labeled nuclei in the caudate walls are shown with blue arrows, in the RMS with lilac arrows, in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles with yellow arrows and the point of transition between the caudate walls and the RMS with red arrows. D, E. Transition between the RMS and OB. The stream of proliferating cells in the RMS does not extend into the olfactory bulbs. EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS are shown as lilac dots and in the OB as olive dots. EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS and OB are shown as they are located in the mouse brain (D) or virtually separated by 4 mm to show that the stream of proliferating cells in the RMS does not extend into the OB (E). 120 days-old mouse one hour post EdU injection.

Mentions: The most anterior part of the MPZ is the RMS. This part of the MPZ can be readily identified as a cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the caudoputamen toward the OB (Figure 8A–C; 3D; 9Bd). The RMS contains about 11% of the proliferating cells in the MPZ (Figure 10I). Proliferating cells have a very high volume number density near the caudoputamen that progressively decreases toward the anterior end of the RMS (Figure 7B, G). At same time, the number of proliferating cells in the RMS remains fairly constant along the anteroposterior axis (Figure 7H) showing that the cells become less tightly packed toward the anterior end of the RMS. We have not noticed any aggregation of proliferating cells in the OB that could be a continuation of the RMS (Figure 8D, E). Proliferating cells in the OB are distributed rather sparsely, similar to the distribution in other parts of the brain outside of the aggregation (Figure 11A). Therefore, we concluded that the RMS is not extending into the OB.


Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult mouse brain.

Bordiuk OL, Smith K, Morin PJ, Semënov MV - PLoS ONE (2014)

Transition between the Caudate Migratory Stream (CMS) and Rostral Migratory Stream (RMS) and the RMS and olfactory bulbs (OB).A–C. Transition between the CMS and RMS. The RMS in the adult mouse brain departs from the most anterior end of the caudoputamen (CP). A. The distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles (shown as yellow dots) has no overlap with the distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS (shown as lilac dots). B. The distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the dorsal and lateral caudate walls (shown as blue dots) overlaps with the distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS (shown as lilac dots). C. Transverse section of the mouse brain stained for EdU. EdU-labeled nuclei in the caudate walls are shown with blue arrows, in the RMS with lilac arrows, in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles with yellow arrows and the point of transition between the caudate walls and the RMS with red arrows. D, E. Transition between the RMS and OB. The stream of proliferating cells in the RMS does not extend into the olfactory bulbs. EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS are shown as lilac dots and in the OB as olive dots. EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS and OB are shown as they are located in the mouse brain (D) or virtually separated by 4 mm to show that the stream of proliferating cells in the RMS does not extend into the OB (E). 120 days-old mouse one hour post EdU injection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222938&req=5

pone-0111453-g008: Transition between the Caudate Migratory Stream (CMS) and Rostral Migratory Stream (RMS) and the RMS and olfactory bulbs (OB).A–C. Transition between the CMS and RMS. The RMS in the adult mouse brain departs from the most anterior end of the caudoputamen (CP). A. The distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles (shown as yellow dots) has no overlap with the distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS (shown as lilac dots). B. The distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the dorsal and lateral caudate walls (shown as blue dots) overlaps with the distribution of EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS (shown as lilac dots). C. Transverse section of the mouse brain stained for EdU. EdU-labeled nuclei in the caudate walls are shown with blue arrows, in the RMS with lilac arrows, in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles with yellow arrows and the point of transition between the caudate walls and the RMS with red arrows. D, E. Transition between the RMS and OB. The stream of proliferating cells in the RMS does not extend into the olfactory bulbs. EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS are shown as lilac dots and in the OB as olive dots. EdU-labeled nuclei in the RMS and OB are shown as they are located in the mouse brain (D) or virtually separated by 4 mm to show that the stream of proliferating cells in the RMS does not extend into the OB (E). 120 days-old mouse one hour post EdU injection.
Mentions: The most anterior part of the MPZ is the RMS. This part of the MPZ can be readily identified as a cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the caudoputamen toward the OB (Figure 8A–C; 3D; 9Bd). The RMS contains about 11% of the proliferating cells in the MPZ (Figure 10I). Proliferating cells have a very high volume number density near the caudoputamen that progressively decreases toward the anterior end of the RMS (Figure 7B, G). At same time, the number of proliferating cells in the RMS remains fairly constant along the anteroposterior axis (Figure 7H) showing that the cells become less tightly packed toward the anterior end of the RMS. We have not noticed any aggregation of proliferating cells in the OB that could be a continuation of the RMS (Figure 8D, E). Proliferating cells in the OB are distributed rather sparsely, similar to the distribution in other parts of the brain outside of the aggregation (Figure 11A). Therefore, we concluded that the RMS is not extending into the OB.

Bottom Line: Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain.The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream.The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: New England Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Bedford Division, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital, Bedford, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, can be observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain. We used 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to map the location of proliferating cells throughout the entire adult mouse brain and found that neurogenesis occurs at two locations in the mouse brain. The larger one we define as the main proliferative zone (MPZ), and the smaller one corresponds to the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The MPZ can be divided into three parts. The caudate migratory stream (CMS) occupies the middle part of the MPZ. The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream. The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer. We have not found any additional aggregations of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain that could suggest the existence of other major neurogenic zones in the adult mouse brain.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus