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Description of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a nematode species used in comparative biology for C. elegans.

Huang RE, Ren X, Qiu Y, Zhao Z - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: This study ends the prolonged period of the 'undescribed' anonymity for C. sinica sp. n. since its discovery and use in comparative biological research.Significant and crossing-direction dependent hybrid incompatibilities in F1 and F2 crossing progeny make C. sinica sp. n. an excellent model for studies of population and speciation genetics.The abundance of nematode species lacking detailed taxonomic characterization deserves renewed attention to address the species description gap for this important yet morphologically 'difficult' group of animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
We re-isolated in China a relative of the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans that was previously referred to informally as C. sp. 5. In spite of its importance for comparative biology, C. sp. 5 has remained morphologically uncharacterized. Therefore, we now provide detailed description of morphology and anatomy, assigning the name of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n. to this nematode that is found frequently in China. C. sinica sp. n. belongs to the Elegans group in the genus Caenorhabditis, being phylogenetically close to C. briggsae although differing in reproductive mode. The gonochoristic C. sinica sp. n. displays two significantly larger distal parts of uteri filled with sperms in the female/hermaphroditic gonad than does the androdioecious C. briggsae. The new species can be differentiated morphologically from all known Caenorhabditis species within the Elegans group by presenting a uniquely shaped, three-pointed hook structure on the male precloacal lip. The lateral field of C. sinica sp. n. is marked by three ridges that are flanked by two additional incisures, sometimes appearing as five ridges in total. This study ends the prolonged period of the 'undescribed' anonymity for C. sinica sp. n. since its discovery and use in comparative biological research. Significant and crossing-direction dependent hybrid incompatibilities in F1 and F2 crossing progeny make C. sinica sp. n. an excellent model for studies of population and speciation genetics. The abundance of nematode species lacking detailed taxonomic characterization deserves renewed attention to address the species description gap for this important yet morphologically 'difficult' group of animals.

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Line drawings of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n.A: Overall anatomy of female (left) and male (right)[St: stoma, Fl: flap, Phar: pharynx, Ne: nerve ring, Va: valvular apparatus, Ha: haustrulum, Ex: excretory pore, Ca: cardia (the pharyngo-intestinal valve), In: intestine, Ger: “germigen” containing a well-developed central rachis surrounded by a layer of germ cells, OoE: elongated oocytes, Ov: oviduct, dUs: the distal part of anterior/posterior uterus filled with sperms, Ut: uterus, Em: embryos carried by the uteri, Vu: vulva, An: anus, Phas: phasmid, Te: testis, Bu: bursa, GP: genital papillae, Gu: gubernaculum, Sp: spicule, pch: precloacal hook]; B: Morphology of lateral field (3 ridges flanked by two additional incisures); C: Anterior region of female; D: Lateral view of male caudal region; E: Ventral view of male caudal region with bursa and genital papillae. (Scale bars: A = 200 µm; B = 10 µm; C = 150 µm; D, E = 50 µm).
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pone-0110957-g001: Line drawings of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n.A: Overall anatomy of female (left) and male (right)[St: stoma, Fl: flap, Phar: pharynx, Ne: nerve ring, Va: valvular apparatus, Ha: haustrulum, Ex: excretory pore, Ca: cardia (the pharyngo-intestinal valve), In: intestine, Ger: “germigen” containing a well-developed central rachis surrounded by a layer of germ cells, OoE: elongated oocytes, Ov: oviduct, dUs: the distal part of anterior/posterior uterus filled with sperms, Ut: uterus, Em: embryos carried by the uteri, Vu: vulva, An: anus, Phas: phasmid, Te: testis, Bu: bursa, GP: genital papillae, Gu: gubernaculum, Sp: spicule, pch: precloacal hook]; B: Morphology of lateral field (3 ridges flanked by two additional incisures); C: Anterior region of female; D: Lateral view of male caudal region; E: Ventral view of male caudal region with bursa and genital papillae. (Scale bars: A = 200 µm; B = 10 µm; C = 150 µm; D, E = 50 µm).

Mentions: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C17880C9-8AC0-448B-A2FB-083FEEED3911 =  Caenorhabditis sp. 5 in [1], [13] (Figs 1–3).


Description of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a nematode species used in comparative biology for C. elegans.

Huang RE, Ren X, Qiu Y, Zhao Z - PLoS ONE (2014)

Line drawings of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n.A: Overall anatomy of female (left) and male (right)[St: stoma, Fl: flap, Phar: pharynx, Ne: nerve ring, Va: valvular apparatus, Ha: haustrulum, Ex: excretory pore, Ca: cardia (the pharyngo-intestinal valve), In: intestine, Ger: “germigen” containing a well-developed central rachis surrounded by a layer of germ cells, OoE: elongated oocytes, Ov: oviduct, dUs: the distal part of anterior/posterior uterus filled with sperms, Ut: uterus, Em: embryos carried by the uteri, Vu: vulva, An: anus, Phas: phasmid, Te: testis, Bu: bursa, GP: genital papillae, Gu: gubernaculum, Sp: spicule, pch: precloacal hook]; B: Morphology of lateral field (3 ridges flanked by two additional incisures); C: Anterior region of female; D: Lateral view of male caudal region; E: Ventral view of male caudal region with bursa and genital papillae. (Scale bars: A = 200 µm; B = 10 µm; C = 150 µm; D, E = 50 µm).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222906&req=5

pone-0110957-g001: Line drawings of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n.A: Overall anatomy of female (left) and male (right)[St: stoma, Fl: flap, Phar: pharynx, Ne: nerve ring, Va: valvular apparatus, Ha: haustrulum, Ex: excretory pore, Ca: cardia (the pharyngo-intestinal valve), In: intestine, Ger: “germigen” containing a well-developed central rachis surrounded by a layer of germ cells, OoE: elongated oocytes, Ov: oviduct, dUs: the distal part of anterior/posterior uterus filled with sperms, Ut: uterus, Em: embryos carried by the uteri, Vu: vulva, An: anus, Phas: phasmid, Te: testis, Bu: bursa, GP: genital papillae, Gu: gubernaculum, Sp: spicule, pch: precloacal hook]; B: Morphology of lateral field (3 ridges flanked by two additional incisures); C: Anterior region of female; D: Lateral view of male caudal region; E: Ventral view of male caudal region with bursa and genital papillae. (Scale bars: A = 200 µm; B = 10 µm; C = 150 µm; D, E = 50 µm).
Mentions: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C17880C9-8AC0-448B-A2FB-083FEEED3911 =  Caenorhabditis sp. 5 in [1], [13] (Figs 1–3).

Bottom Line: This study ends the prolonged period of the 'undescribed' anonymity for C. sinica sp. n. since its discovery and use in comparative biological research.Significant and crossing-direction dependent hybrid incompatibilities in F1 and F2 crossing progeny make C. sinica sp. n. an excellent model for studies of population and speciation genetics.The abundance of nematode species lacking detailed taxonomic characterization deserves renewed attention to address the species description gap for this important yet morphologically 'difficult' group of animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
We re-isolated in China a relative of the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans that was previously referred to informally as C. sp. 5. In spite of its importance for comparative biology, C. sp. 5 has remained morphologically uncharacterized. Therefore, we now provide detailed description of morphology and anatomy, assigning the name of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n. to this nematode that is found frequently in China. C. sinica sp. n. belongs to the Elegans group in the genus Caenorhabditis, being phylogenetically close to C. briggsae although differing in reproductive mode. The gonochoristic C. sinica sp. n. displays two significantly larger distal parts of uteri filled with sperms in the female/hermaphroditic gonad than does the androdioecious C. briggsae. The new species can be differentiated morphologically from all known Caenorhabditis species within the Elegans group by presenting a uniquely shaped, three-pointed hook structure on the male precloacal lip. The lateral field of C. sinica sp. n. is marked by three ridges that are flanked by two additional incisures, sometimes appearing as five ridges in total. This study ends the prolonged period of the 'undescribed' anonymity for C. sinica sp. n. since its discovery and use in comparative biological research. Significant and crossing-direction dependent hybrid incompatibilities in F1 and F2 crossing progeny make C. sinica sp. n. an excellent model for studies of population and speciation genetics. The abundance of nematode species lacking detailed taxonomic characterization deserves renewed attention to address the species description gap for this important yet morphologically 'difficult' group of animals.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus