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The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009-2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae.

Sherwood AR, Carlile AL, Neumann JM, Kociolek JP, Johansen JR, Lowe RL, Conklin KY, Presting GG - BMC Ecol. (2014)

Bottom Line: The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools.Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data.These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands.

Results: 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009-2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as "cosmopolitan", 11.4% "endemic", and 61.3% as intermediate.

Conclusions: The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools. Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data. These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal.

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Neighbor-joining tree of UPA sequences of the Hawaiian non-marine charophycean green algae. Sequence diversity based on the UPA marker for the Hawaiian non-marine, charophycean green algae. The neighbor-joining tree is based on uncorrected p-distances nucleotide model in MEGA 5.05. Scale bar = substitutions per site.
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Figure 6: Neighbor-joining tree of UPA sequences of the Hawaiian non-marine charophycean green algae. Sequence diversity based on the UPA marker for the Hawaiian non-marine, charophycean green algae. The neighbor-joining tree is based on uncorrected p-distances nucleotide model in MEGA 5.05. Scale bar = substitutions per site.

Mentions: Sequence data for the 16S rRNA, COI, LSU, SSU, rbcL, and UPA markers were employed to investigate the molecular diversity of specific lineages of the Hawaiian non-marine algal flora. Sequence diversity for each sampled taxon is represented in neighbor-joining trees based on uncorrected p-distances (Figures 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14). Rather than attempting to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships for each taxon, we aimed to use these data for an assessment of patterns of molecular diversity within the Hawaiian flora. Thus, higher order relationships are not inferred from these analyses; comparisons should be restricted to closely-related taxa. More in-depth phylogenetic analyses have been published or are in progress for a number of taxa, including green and red algae [38],[39], cyanobacteria [40] and diatoms [41].


The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009-2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae.

Sherwood AR, Carlile AL, Neumann JM, Kociolek JP, Johansen JR, Lowe RL, Conklin KY, Presting GG - BMC Ecol. (2014)

Neighbor-joining tree of UPA sequences of the Hawaiian non-marine charophycean green algae. Sequence diversity based on the UPA marker for the Hawaiian non-marine, charophycean green algae. The neighbor-joining tree is based on uncorrected p-distances nucleotide model in MEGA 5.05. Scale bar = substitutions per site.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222836&req=5

Figure 6: Neighbor-joining tree of UPA sequences of the Hawaiian non-marine charophycean green algae. Sequence diversity based on the UPA marker for the Hawaiian non-marine, charophycean green algae. The neighbor-joining tree is based on uncorrected p-distances nucleotide model in MEGA 5.05. Scale bar = substitutions per site.
Mentions: Sequence data for the 16S rRNA, COI, LSU, SSU, rbcL, and UPA markers were employed to investigate the molecular diversity of specific lineages of the Hawaiian non-marine algal flora. Sequence diversity for each sampled taxon is represented in neighbor-joining trees based on uncorrected p-distances (Figures 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14). Rather than attempting to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships for each taxon, we aimed to use these data for an assessment of patterns of molecular diversity within the Hawaiian flora. Thus, higher order relationships are not inferred from these analyses; comparisons should be restricted to closely-related taxa. More in-depth phylogenetic analyses have been published or are in progress for a number of taxa, including green and red algae [38],[39], cyanobacteria [40] and diatoms [41].

Bottom Line: The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools.Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data.These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands.

Results: 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009-2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as "cosmopolitan", 11.4% "endemic", and 61.3% as intermediate.

Conclusions: The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools. Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data. These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus