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Characteristics of a rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude.

Yu AY, Xu QH, Hu SL, Li F, Chen YJ, Yin Y, Zhu G, Lin JK, Feng H - Neuroreport (2014)

Bottom Line: In contrast, rCBF and PbtO2 had decreased markedly by 72 h (P<0.01); brainstem auditory-evoked potential values were significantly prolonged (P<0.05).Moreover, an inverse correlation between rCBF and BWC and a positive correlation between rCBF and PbtO2 were found.The rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude can be established successfully using a nail gun shot and a hypobaric chamber.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: aDepartment of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing bThe 41 Hospital of PLA, Tibet, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
To establish a rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude and to examine the characteristics of this model. Rats were divided randomly into a normobaric group and a high-altitude group and their corresponding control groups. A rat model of an open craniocerebral injury was established with a nail gun shot. Simulated high-altitude conditions were established with a hypobaric chamber at 0.6 ATA to mimic pressure at an altitude of 4000 m. Mortality, brain water content (BWC), Evans blue content, pathology, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2), and brainstem auditory-evoked potential were observed after injury. The mortality of the high-altitude group was significantly greater than that of the normobaric group within 72 h after injury (P<0.05). BWC and Evans blue content increased by 48 h after injury (P<0.05); pathological changes in damaged brains were more serious. In contrast, rCBF and PbtO2 had decreased markedly by 72 h (P<0.01); brainstem auditory-evoked potential values were significantly prolonged (P<0.05). Moreover, an inverse correlation between rCBF and BWC and a positive correlation between rCBF and PbtO2 were found. The rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude can be established successfully using a nail gun shot and a hypobaric chamber. The injury characteristics at high altitude were more serious, rapid, and prolonged than those in the normobaric group.

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(a) A graph showing changes in brain water content *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 versus the NI group at the same time point. (b) EB particles shown by fluorescence microscopy. (1) No blue-stained brain tissues were observed in the control group. (2) Fewer EB particles’ exudation (arrow) was observed in the NI group 12 h after injury. (3) More EB particles’ exudation (arrow) was observed in the HI group 12 h after injury. (c) Quantitative analysis of changes in the EB content. *P<0.05 versus the NI group at the same time point. EB, Evans blue; HI, high-altitude injury group; NI, normobaric injury group.
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Figure 3: (a) A graph showing changes in brain water content *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 versus the NI group at the same time point. (b) EB particles shown by fluorescence microscopy. (1) No blue-stained brain tissues were observed in the control group. (2) Fewer EB particles’ exudation (arrow) was observed in the NI group 12 h after injury. (3) More EB particles’ exudation (arrow) was observed in the HI group 12 h after injury. (c) Quantitative analysis of changes in the EB content. *P<0.05 versus the NI group at the same time point. EB, Evans blue; HI, high-altitude injury group; NI, normobaric injury group.

Mentions: BWC increased immediately at 1 h after injury, maximized between 24 and 48 h, and then began to restore at 72 h; however, it did not revert to the control level by 168 h after injury. BWC after injury in the HI group was significantly higher than that in the NI group, except at 12 and 168 h (Fig. 3a).


Characteristics of a rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude.

Yu AY, Xu QH, Hu SL, Li F, Chen YJ, Yin Y, Zhu G, Lin JK, Feng H - Neuroreport (2014)

(a) A graph showing changes in brain water content *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 versus the NI group at the same time point. (b) EB particles shown by fluorescence microscopy. (1) No blue-stained brain tissues were observed in the control group. (2) Fewer EB particles’ exudation (arrow) was observed in the NI group 12 h after injury. (3) More EB particles’ exudation (arrow) was observed in the HI group 12 h after injury. (c) Quantitative analysis of changes in the EB content. *P<0.05 versus the NI group at the same time point. EB, Evans blue; HI, high-altitude injury group; NI, normobaric injury group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222709&req=5

Figure 3: (a) A graph showing changes in brain water content *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 versus the NI group at the same time point. (b) EB particles shown by fluorescence microscopy. (1) No blue-stained brain tissues were observed in the control group. (2) Fewer EB particles’ exudation (arrow) was observed in the NI group 12 h after injury. (3) More EB particles’ exudation (arrow) was observed in the HI group 12 h after injury. (c) Quantitative analysis of changes in the EB content. *P<0.05 versus the NI group at the same time point. EB, Evans blue; HI, high-altitude injury group; NI, normobaric injury group.
Mentions: BWC increased immediately at 1 h after injury, maximized between 24 and 48 h, and then began to restore at 72 h; however, it did not revert to the control level by 168 h after injury. BWC after injury in the HI group was significantly higher than that in the NI group, except at 12 and 168 h (Fig. 3a).

Bottom Line: In contrast, rCBF and PbtO2 had decreased markedly by 72 h (P<0.01); brainstem auditory-evoked potential values were significantly prolonged (P<0.05).Moreover, an inverse correlation between rCBF and BWC and a positive correlation between rCBF and PbtO2 were found.The rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude can be established successfully using a nail gun shot and a hypobaric chamber.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: aDepartment of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing bThe 41 Hospital of PLA, Tibet, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
To establish a rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude and to examine the characteristics of this model. Rats were divided randomly into a normobaric group and a high-altitude group and their corresponding control groups. A rat model of an open craniocerebral injury was established with a nail gun shot. Simulated high-altitude conditions were established with a hypobaric chamber at 0.6 ATA to mimic pressure at an altitude of 4000 m. Mortality, brain water content (BWC), Evans blue content, pathology, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2), and brainstem auditory-evoked potential were observed after injury. The mortality of the high-altitude group was significantly greater than that of the normobaric group within 72 h after injury (P<0.05). BWC and Evans blue content increased by 48 h after injury (P<0.05); pathological changes in damaged brains were more serious. In contrast, rCBF and PbtO2 had decreased markedly by 72 h (P<0.01); brainstem auditory-evoked potential values were significantly prolonged (P<0.05). Moreover, an inverse correlation between rCBF and BWC and a positive correlation between rCBF and PbtO2 were found. The rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude can be established successfully using a nail gun shot and a hypobaric chamber. The injury characteristics at high altitude were more serious, rapid, and prolonged than those in the normobaric group.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus