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Patterns of between-farm contacts via professionals in Sweden.

Olofsson E, Nöremark M, Lewerin SS - Acta Vet. Scand. (2014)

Bottom Line: There were twelve participating organisations, and data was provided for one to three individuals/vehicles/veterinary practices per professional category and per geographic region (except for dairy service technicians and livestock hauliers who did not provide data from all regions).Movement of live animals pose the greatest risk for the spread of infectious animal diseases; however indirect contacts are important for many diseases.The difficulties in contacting some professionals visiting farms could be a problem in an outbreak situation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious diseases of livestock have negative consequences for animal production as well as animal health and welfare and can be transmitted between farms via direct (live animal movements) as well as indirect (via physical vectors such as, people, transport vehicles and fomites) contacts. The objective of the study was to examine the travel patterns of professionals visiting Swedish farms (veterinarians, milk tanker drivers, artificial inseminators, maintenance technicians and livestock hauliers). This was done by obtaining records of the farms visited by a sample of professionals in the above categories in one week in January, one week in April, one week in July and one week in October in the Swedish counties Västerbotten, Södermanland, Västergötland and Skåne.

Results: There were twelve participating organisations, and data was provided for one to three individuals/vehicles/veterinary practices per professional category and per geographic region (except for dairy service technicians and livestock hauliers who did not provide data from all regions). There was a trend towards larger areas covered and smaller number of farms visited per week in the north, but exceptions occurred and there were regional variations. Generally, the greatest areas were travelled by milk tankers and livestock hauliers, and the profession travelling over the smallest areas tended to be the veterinarians. Milk tankers visited most farms per week, one milk tanker could visit between 23 and 90 farms per week and travel over areas between 717 km² and 23,512 km² per week.

Conclusions: Valuable insight into the travel patterns of Swedish professionals has emerged although the implications of the study largely concern highly infectious diseases. Movement of live animals pose the greatest risk for the spread of infectious animal diseases; however indirect contacts are important for many diseases. The results of this study indicate that in Sweden a highly contagious disease might spread over a large area in the time span of one incubation period, which ought to be kept in mind in case of an outbreak and in outbreak investigations. The difficulties in contacting some professionals visiting farms could be a problem in an outbreak situation.

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Geographic area travelled by Swedish livestock hauliers, per week. Travel area of four Swedish animal transports, operated by three companies transporting animals professionally in 2012 and 2013, scale 1: 7 500 000. Time periods depicted: 8 – 14 October 2012 or 7 – 13 October 2013: orange, 7 –13 January, 2013: black, 8 – 14 April: light brown, 8 – 14 July, 2013: dark brown.
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Fig6: Geographic area travelled by Swedish livestock hauliers, per week. Travel area of four Swedish animal transports, operated by three companies transporting animals professionally in 2012 and 2013, scale 1: 7 500 000. Time periods depicted: 8 – 14 October 2012 or 7 – 13 October 2013: orange, 7 –13 January, 2013: black, 8 – 14 April: light brown, 8 – 14 July, 2013: dark brown.

Mentions: For further data, see Table 1. The area covered by each livestock hauiler (vehicle) per week is illustrated in Figure 6. The livestock hauliers in Skåne and Västmanland were excluded from Figure 6 due to their data format.Figure 6


Patterns of between-farm contacts via professionals in Sweden.

Olofsson E, Nöremark M, Lewerin SS - Acta Vet. Scand. (2014)

Geographic area travelled by Swedish livestock hauliers, per week. Travel area of four Swedish animal transports, operated by three companies transporting animals professionally in 2012 and 2013, scale 1: 7 500 000. Time periods depicted: 8 – 14 October 2012 or 7 – 13 October 2013: orange, 7 –13 January, 2013: black, 8 – 14 April: light brown, 8 – 14 July, 2013: dark brown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222379&req=5

Fig6: Geographic area travelled by Swedish livestock hauliers, per week. Travel area of four Swedish animal transports, operated by three companies transporting animals professionally in 2012 and 2013, scale 1: 7 500 000. Time periods depicted: 8 – 14 October 2012 or 7 – 13 October 2013: orange, 7 –13 January, 2013: black, 8 – 14 April: light brown, 8 – 14 July, 2013: dark brown.
Mentions: For further data, see Table 1. The area covered by each livestock hauiler (vehicle) per week is illustrated in Figure 6. The livestock hauliers in Skåne and Västmanland were excluded from Figure 6 due to their data format.Figure 6

Bottom Line: There were twelve participating organisations, and data was provided for one to three individuals/vehicles/veterinary practices per professional category and per geographic region (except for dairy service technicians and livestock hauliers who did not provide data from all regions).Movement of live animals pose the greatest risk for the spread of infectious animal diseases; however indirect contacts are important for many diseases.The difficulties in contacting some professionals visiting farms could be a problem in an outbreak situation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious diseases of livestock have negative consequences for animal production as well as animal health and welfare and can be transmitted between farms via direct (live animal movements) as well as indirect (via physical vectors such as, people, transport vehicles and fomites) contacts. The objective of the study was to examine the travel patterns of professionals visiting Swedish farms (veterinarians, milk tanker drivers, artificial inseminators, maintenance technicians and livestock hauliers). This was done by obtaining records of the farms visited by a sample of professionals in the above categories in one week in January, one week in April, one week in July and one week in October in the Swedish counties Västerbotten, Södermanland, Västergötland and Skåne.

Results: There were twelve participating organisations, and data was provided for one to three individuals/vehicles/veterinary practices per professional category and per geographic region (except for dairy service technicians and livestock hauliers who did not provide data from all regions). There was a trend towards larger areas covered and smaller number of farms visited per week in the north, but exceptions occurred and there were regional variations. Generally, the greatest areas were travelled by milk tankers and livestock hauliers, and the profession travelling over the smallest areas tended to be the veterinarians. Milk tankers visited most farms per week, one milk tanker could visit between 23 and 90 farms per week and travel over areas between 717 km² and 23,512 km² per week.

Conclusions: Valuable insight into the travel patterns of Swedish professionals has emerged although the implications of the study largely concern highly infectious diseases. Movement of live animals pose the greatest risk for the spread of infectious animal diseases; however indirect contacts are important for many diseases. The results of this study indicate that in Sweden a highly contagious disease might spread over a large area in the time span of one incubation period, which ought to be kept in mind in case of an outbreak and in outbreak investigations. The difficulties in contacting some professionals visiting farms could be a problem in an outbreak situation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus