Limits...
Changes in methylation patterns of kiss1 and kiss1r gene promoters across puberty.

Wyatt AK, Zavodna M, Viljoen JL, Stanton JA, Gemmell NJ, Jasoni CL - Genet Epigenet (2013)

Bottom Line: We investigated whether epigenetic DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes at puberty.Both Kiss1 and Kiss1r showed highly significant puberty-specific differential promoter methylation patterns.By identifying key differentially methylated residues associated with puberty, these findings will be important for further studies investigating the control of gene expression across the pubertal transition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Reproduction and Genomics, Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Anatomy, University of Otago School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The initiation of mammalian puberty is underpinned by an increase in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) signaling via its receptor (Kiss1r/GPR54) on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Animals and humans with loss-of-function mutations in Kiss1 or Kiss1r fail to go through puberty. The timing of puberty is dependent on environmental factors, and malleability in puberty timing suggests a mechanism that can translate environmental signals into patterns of Kiss1/Kiss1r gene expression. Epigenetics is a powerful mechanism that can control gene expression in an environment-dependent manner. We investigated whether epigenetic DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes at puberty. We used bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing to define the methylation in the promoters of Kiss1 and Kiss1r before and after puberty in female rats. Both Kiss1 and Kiss1r showed highly significant puberty-specific differential promoter methylation patterns. By identifying key differentially methylated residues associated with puberty, these findings will be important for further studies investigating the control of gene expression across the pubertal transition.

No MeSH data available.


Details of methylation across entire promoter regions. A. Bar graph showing the percentage of CpG residues within each of the 6 regions across the Kiss1 promoter. Note that the promoter as a whole is mostly methylated irrespective of physiological state. B. Bar graphs showing the percentage of CpG residues within each of the 5 regions spanning the Kiss1r promoter. Note that the promoter as a whole is mostly unmethylated irrespective of physiological state. ND, no data, indicating that insufficient sequencing coverage was obtained for these three regions. This mainly because of the high poly-T content that arises as a consequence of bisulfite conversion. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222338&req=5

f2-geg-5-2013-051: Details of methylation across entire promoter regions. A. Bar graph showing the percentage of CpG residues within each of the 6 regions across the Kiss1 promoter. Note that the promoter as a whole is mostly methylated irrespective of physiological state. B. Bar graphs showing the percentage of CpG residues within each of the 5 regions spanning the Kiss1r promoter. Note that the promoter as a whole is mostly unmethylated irrespective of physiological state. ND, no data, indicating that insufficient sequencing coverage was obtained for these three regions. This mainly because of the high poly-T content that arises as a consequence of bisulfite conversion. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean.

Mentions: Within the Kiss1 and Kiss1r proximal promoters, the levels of overall methylation are strikingly different. The Kiss1 promoter is mostly methylated irrespective of physiological state. Of the six regions surveyed in the Kiss1 promoter, two had insufficient coverage for analysis and the remaining four showed that over 75% of all CpGs were methylated both before and after puberty (Fig. 2A). In contrast, the Kiss1r promoter was mostly unmethylated. Of the five regions surveyed in the Kiss1r promoter, one had insufficient coverage for analysis and of the remaining 4 most showed <20% CpG residues methylated (Fig. 2B). One exception was region 4, which showed nearly 60% methylated CpGs. This overall percentage of methylation in Kiss1r, like Kiss1, was irrespective of puberty.


Changes in methylation patterns of kiss1 and kiss1r gene promoters across puberty.

Wyatt AK, Zavodna M, Viljoen JL, Stanton JA, Gemmell NJ, Jasoni CL - Genet Epigenet (2013)

Details of methylation across entire promoter regions. A. Bar graph showing the percentage of CpG residues within each of the 6 regions across the Kiss1 promoter. Note that the promoter as a whole is mostly methylated irrespective of physiological state. B. Bar graphs showing the percentage of CpG residues within each of the 5 regions spanning the Kiss1r promoter. Note that the promoter as a whole is mostly unmethylated irrespective of physiological state. ND, no data, indicating that insufficient sequencing coverage was obtained for these three regions. This mainly because of the high poly-T content that arises as a consequence of bisulfite conversion. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222338&req=5

f2-geg-5-2013-051: Details of methylation across entire promoter regions. A. Bar graph showing the percentage of CpG residues within each of the 6 regions across the Kiss1 promoter. Note that the promoter as a whole is mostly methylated irrespective of physiological state. B. Bar graphs showing the percentage of CpG residues within each of the 5 regions spanning the Kiss1r promoter. Note that the promoter as a whole is mostly unmethylated irrespective of physiological state. ND, no data, indicating that insufficient sequencing coverage was obtained for these three regions. This mainly because of the high poly-T content that arises as a consequence of bisulfite conversion. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean.
Mentions: Within the Kiss1 and Kiss1r proximal promoters, the levels of overall methylation are strikingly different. The Kiss1 promoter is mostly methylated irrespective of physiological state. Of the six regions surveyed in the Kiss1 promoter, two had insufficient coverage for analysis and the remaining four showed that over 75% of all CpGs were methylated both before and after puberty (Fig. 2A). In contrast, the Kiss1r promoter was mostly unmethylated. Of the five regions surveyed in the Kiss1r promoter, one had insufficient coverage for analysis and of the remaining 4 most showed <20% CpG residues methylated (Fig. 2B). One exception was region 4, which showed nearly 60% methylated CpGs. This overall percentage of methylation in Kiss1r, like Kiss1, was irrespective of puberty.

Bottom Line: We investigated whether epigenetic DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes at puberty.Both Kiss1 and Kiss1r showed highly significant puberty-specific differential promoter methylation patterns.By identifying key differentially methylated residues associated with puberty, these findings will be important for further studies investigating the control of gene expression across the pubertal transition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroendocrinology, Centre for Reproduction and Genomics, Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Anatomy, University of Otago School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The initiation of mammalian puberty is underpinned by an increase in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) signaling via its receptor (Kiss1r/GPR54) on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Animals and humans with loss-of-function mutations in Kiss1 or Kiss1r fail to go through puberty. The timing of puberty is dependent on environmental factors, and malleability in puberty timing suggests a mechanism that can translate environmental signals into patterns of Kiss1/Kiss1r gene expression. Epigenetics is a powerful mechanism that can control gene expression in an environment-dependent manner. We investigated whether epigenetic DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes at puberty. We used bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing to define the methylation in the promoters of Kiss1 and Kiss1r before and after puberty in female rats. Both Kiss1 and Kiss1r showed highly significant puberty-specific differential promoter methylation patterns. By identifying key differentially methylated residues associated with puberty, these findings will be important for further studies investigating the control of gene expression across the pubertal transition.

No MeSH data available.