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Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale.

de la Peña E, Bonte D - Ecol Evol (2014)

Bottom Line: Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass.Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth.In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Terrestrial Ecology Unit (TEREC), Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, GhentUniversity K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, Gent, 9000, Belgium ; Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea "La Mayora", Universidad de Málaga - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Algarrobo-Costa, Málaga, E-29750, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The strengths and directions of these responses have been scarcely addressed in the literature. Using Taraxacum officinale, the root-feeding nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the locust Schistocerca gregaria as a model species, we examined to what degree above- and belowground herbivory affect (1) plant growth responses, (2) the induction of plant defensive traits, that is, leaf trichomes, and (3) changes in dispersal-related seed traits and seed germination. We compared the performance of plants originating from different populations to address whether plant responses are conserved across putative different genotypes. Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass. Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth. Plants exposed to the two herbivores showed fewer leaf trichomes than plants challenged only by one herbivore and consequently experienced greater aboveground herbivory. In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success.

No MeSH data available.


Number of trichomes on leaves (mean ± SE) of Taraxacum officinale according treatment (i.e., control, locust, nematode, locust + nematode). Different letters indicate significant differences according to Tukey's post hoc test (P ≤ 0.05).
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fig03: Number of trichomes on leaves (mean ± SE) of Taraxacum officinale according treatment (i.e., control, locust, nematode, locust + nematode). Different letters indicate significant differences according to Tukey's post hoc test (P ≤ 0.05).

Mentions: The presence of herbivores, regardless of whether they appeared above- or belowground, resulted in a higher trichome density (Fig. 3). However, the combination of nematodes and locusts caused a suppression of trichome production, reaching values similar to control plants (Fig. 3).


Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale.

de la Peña E, Bonte D - Ecol Evol (2014)

Number of trichomes on leaves (mean ± SE) of Taraxacum officinale according treatment (i.e., control, locust, nematode, locust + nematode). Different letters indicate significant differences according to Tukey's post hoc test (P ≤ 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222217&req=5

fig03: Number of trichomes on leaves (mean ± SE) of Taraxacum officinale according treatment (i.e., control, locust, nematode, locust + nematode). Different letters indicate significant differences according to Tukey's post hoc test (P ≤ 0.05).
Mentions: The presence of herbivores, regardless of whether they appeared above- or belowground, resulted in a higher trichome density (Fig. 3). However, the combination of nematodes and locusts caused a suppression of trichome production, reaching values similar to control plants (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass.Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth.In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Terrestrial Ecology Unit (TEREC), Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, GhentUniversity K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, Gent, 9000, Belgium ; Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea "La Mayora", Universidad de Málaga - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Algarrobo-Costa, Málaga, E-29750, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The strengths and directions of these responses have been scarcely addressed in the literature. Using Taraxacum officinale, the root-feeding nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the locust Schistocerca gregaria as a model species, we examined to what degree above- and belowground herbivory affect (1) plant growth responses, (2) the induction of plant defensive traits, that is, leaf trichomes, and (3) changes in dispersal-related seed traits and seed germination. We compared the performance of plants originating from different populations to address whether plant responses are conserved across putative different genotypes. Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass. Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth. Plants exposed to the two herbivores showed fewer leaf trichomes than plants challenged only by one herbivore and consequently experienced greater aboveground herbivory. In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success.

No MeSH data available.