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Visualization of species pairwise associations: a case study of surrogacy in bird assemblages.

Lane PW, Lindenmayer DB, Barton PS, Blanchard W, Westgate MJ - Ecol Evol (2014)

Bottom Line: We demonstrate the utility of our new approach by showing differences in associations among woodland bird species found in different habitats and by illustrating the way these can be interpreted in terms of underlying ecological mechanisms.Our new method is computationally feasible for large assemblages and provides readily interpretable effects with standard errors.It has wide applications for quantifying species associations within ecological communities, examining questions about particular species that occur with others, and how their associations can determine the structure and composition of communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fenner School of Environment and Society, ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, National Environmental Research Program, The Australian National University Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 0200, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Quantifying and visualizing species associations are important to many areas of ecology and conservation biology. Species networks are one way to analyze species associations, with a growing number of applications such as food webs, nesting webs, plant-animal mutualisms, and interlinked extinctions. We present a new method for assessing and visualizing patterns of co-occurrence of species. The method depicts interactions and associations in an analogous way with existing network diagrams for studying pollination and trophic interactions, but adds the assessment of sign, strength, and direction of the associations. This provides a distinct advantage over existing methods of quantifying and visualizing co-occurrence. We demonstrate the utility of our new approach by showing differences in associations among woodland bird species found in different habitats and by illustrating the way these can be interpreted in terms of underlying ecological mechanisms. Our new method is computationally feasible for large assemblages and provides readily interpretable effects with standard errors. It has wide applications for quantifying species associations within ecological communities, examining questions about particular species that occur with others, and how their associations can determine the structure and composition of communities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Association diagram for plantings (345 surveys); key as for Fig. 1.
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fig02: Association diagram for plantings (345 surveys); key as for Fig. 1.

Mentions: The arrangement of the nodes in Fig. 1 shows a cluster of nine species, all of which are positively associated with at least half the other species in the cluster. The white-plumed honeyeater (Ref 34) and willie wagtail Rhipidura leucophrys (Ref 37) were indicated by many species, but did not indicate other species because they were common. Several other species were positively associated with one or two of these nine species, or in pairs or chains, but there are no other clear clusters. To facilitate the comparison with Fig. 2, we arranged these species around the cluster together with other species that are positively associated with the cluster in that figure. There were 15 species with no associations >3 or <⅓. All the odds ratios represented by red lines in Fig. 1 were individually significantly different from 1 (largest P-value = 0.008), as were all but one of the odds ratios represented by blue lines (P < 0.05). The exception was the contraindication of the peaceful dove Geopelia striata by the superb parrot Polytelis swainsonii (Refs 21 and 31; P = 0.08). Table 3 lists all the odds ratios. We studied the distribution of odds ratios by simulation, in the absence of real effects (for details, see Appendix 2), and typically found only two spuriously large odds ratios and no spuriously small ones that were individually statistically significant (of 1406 odds ratios).


Visualization of species pairwise associations: a case study of surrogacy in bird assemblages.

Lane PW, Lindenmayer DB, Barton PS, Blanchard W, Westgate MJ - Ecol Evol (2014)

Association diagram for plantings (345 surveys); key as for Fig. 1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222214&req=5

fig02: Association diagram for plantings (345 surveys); key as for Fig. 1.
Mentions: The arrangement of the nodes in Fig. 1 shows a cluster of nine species, all of which are positively associated with at least half the other species in the cluster. The white-plumed honeyeater (Ref 34) and willie wagtail Rhipidura leucophrys (Ref 37) were indicated by many species, but did not indicate other species because they were common. Several other species were positively associated with one or two of these nine species, or in pairs or chains, but there are no other clear clusters. To facilitate the comparison with Fig. 2, we arranged these species around the cluster together with other species that are positively associated with the cluster in that figure. There were 15 species with no associations >3 or <⅓. All the odds ratios represented by red lines in Fig. 1 were individually significantly different from 1 (largest P-value = 0.008), as were all but one of the odds ratios represented by blue lines (P < 0.05). The exception was the contraindication of the peaceful dove Geopelia striata by the superb parrot Polytelis swainsonii (Refs 21 and 31; P = 0.08). Table 3 lists all the odds ratios. We studied the distribution of odds ratios by simulation, in the absence of real effects (for details, see Appendix 2), and typically found only two spuriously large odds ratios and no spuriously small ones that were individually statistically significant (of 1406 odds ratios).

Bottom Line: We demonstrate the utility of our new approach by showing differences in associations among woodland bird species found in different habitats and by illustrating the way these can be interpreted in terms of underlying ecological mechanisms.Our new method is computationally feasible for large assemblages and provides readily interpretable effects with standard errors.It has wide applications for quantifying species associations within ecological communities, examining questions about particular species that occur with others, and how their associations can determine the structure and composition of communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fenner School of Environment and Society, ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, National Environmental Research Program, The Australian National University Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 0200, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Quantifying and visualizing species associations are important to many areas of ecology and conservation biology. Species networks are one way to analyze species associations, with a growing number of applications such as food webs, nesting webs, plant-animal mutualisms, and interlinked extinctions. We present a new method for assessing and visualizing patterns of co-occurrence of species. The method depicts interactions and associations in an analogous way with existing network diagrams for studying pollination and trophic interactions, but adds the assessment of sign, strength, and direction of the associations. This provides a distinct advantage over existing methods of quantifying and visualizing co-occurrence. We demonstrate the utility of our new approach by showing differences in associations among woodland bird species found in different habitats and by illustrating the way these can be interpreted in terms of underlying ecological mechanisms. Our new method is computationally feasible for large assemblages and provides readily interpretable effects with standard errors. It has wide applications for quantifying species associations within ecological communities, examining questions about particular species that occur with others, and how their associations can determine the structure and composition of communities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus