Limits...
Effects of experimental sedimentation on the phenological dynamics and leaf traits of replanted mangroves at Gazi bay, Kenya.

Okello JA, Robert EM, Beeckman H, Kairo JG, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N - Ecol Evol (2014)

Bottom Line: Sedimentation results in the creation of new mudflats for mangroves to colonize among other benefits.However, large sediment input in mangrove areas may be detrimental to these forests.The dynamics of phenological events of three mangrove tree species (Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal, and Rhizophora mucronata) were evaluated under experimental sediment burial simulating sedimentation levels of 15, 30, and 45 cm.While there was generally no shift in timing of phenological events with sedimentation, the three mangrove tree species each responded differently to the treatments.Partially buried A. marina trees produced more leaves than the controls during the wet season and less during the dry season.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) Mombasa, Kenya ; Laboratory of Plant Biology and Nature Management (APNA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel B-1050, Brussels, Belgium ; Laboratory of Wood Biology and Xylarium, Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA) B-3080, Tervuren, Belgium ; Laboratory of Systems Ecology and Resource Management, Université libre de Bruxelles B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
Sedimentation results in the creation of new mudflats for mangroves to colonize among other benefits. However, large sediment input in mangrove areas may be detrimental to these forests. The dynamics of phenological events of three mangrove tree species (Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal, and Rhizophora mucronata) were evaluated under experimental sediment burial simulating sedimentation levels of 15, 30, and 45 cm.While there was generally no shift in timing of phenological events with sedimentation, the three mangrove tree species each responded differently to the treatments.Partially buried A. marina trees produced more leaves than the controls during the wet season and less during the dry season. Ceriops tagal on the other hand had higher leaf loss and low replacement rates in the partially buried trees during the first 6 months of the experiment but adapted with time, resulting in either equal or higher leaf emergence rates than the controls.Rhizophora mucronata maintained leaf emergence and loss patterns as the unaffected controls but had a higher fecundity and productivity in the 15-cm sedimentation level.The results suggest that under incidences of large sedimentation events (which could be witnessed as a result of climate change impacts coupled with anthropogenic disturbances), mangrove trees may capitalize on "advantages" associated with terrestrial sediment brought into the biotope, thus maintaining the pattern of phenological events.

No MeSH data available.


Mean (±SE) monthly leaf emergence (A,C) and leaf loss (B,D), in Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata growing under different experimental sedimentation levels (15, 30, 45 cm) between June 2011 and May 2012 in A. marina and November 2011–October 2012 in R. mucronata. The wet season was taken to include the period of long rains, transition, and short rains.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222206&req=5

fig04: Mean (±SE) monthly leaf emergence (A,C) and leaf loss (B,D), in Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata growing under different experimental sedimentation levels (15, 30, 45 cm) between June 2011 and May 2012 in A. marina and November 2011–October 2012 in R. mucronata. The wet season was taken to include the period of long rains, transition, and short rains.

Mentions: A Kruskal–Wallis analysis revealed significant influence of season (H = 17.86, P < 0.01) as well as sedimentation levels (H = 22.98, P < 0.05) on leaf emergence in A. marina. Whereas the controls maintained similar leaf emergence rates over the different seasons (U = 135.5, P > 0.05 Mann–Whitney U-test), there were significantly higher rates of leaf emergence in the partially buried A. marina trees during the periods with the highest precipitation rates as opposed to the dry months (Fig. 4A; U = 302, P < 0.05, Mann–Whitney). There was also a general reduction in leaf emergence rates during the dry season with the controls being less affected (reduction of 17.75%) as compared to the silted trees (15 cm:– 71.88%, 30 cm:– 47.23%, and 45 cm:– 48.68%), resulting in thinner crowns. Leaf loss in this species was relatively higher during the dry season in controls and 15 and 45 cm sedimentation levels, but the same increase experienced during the short rains in the 30-cm level (Fig. 4B). Additionally, percentage number of shoots with leaf replacement rate higher than leaf loss rate was higher in the controls during the dry season and highest in the 15-cm partially buried trees during the wet months ( Fig. 6).


Effects of experimental sedimentation on the phenological dynamics and leaf traits of replanted mangroves at Gazi bay, Kenya.

Okello JA, Robert EM, Beeckman H, Kairo JG, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N - Ecol Evol (2014)

Mean (±SE) monthly leaf emergence (A,C) and leaf loss (B,D), in Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata growing under different experimental sedimentation levels (15, 30, 45 cm) between June 2011 and May 2012 in A. marina and November 2011–October 2012 in R. mucronata. The wet season was taken to include the period of long rains, transition, and short rains.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4222206&req=5

fig04: Mean (±SE) monthly leaf emergence (A,C) and leaf loss (B,D), in Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata growing under different experimental sedimentation levels (15, 30, 45 cm) between June 2011 and May 2012 in A. marina and November 2011–October 2012 in R. mucronata. The wet season was taken to include the period of long rains, transition, and short rains.
Mentions: A Kruskal–Wallis analysis revealed significant influence of season (H = 17.86, P < 0.01) as well as sedimentation levels (H = 22.98, P < 0.05) on leaf emergence in A. marina. Whereas the controls maintained similar leaf emergence rates over the different seasons (U = 135.5, P > 0.05 Mann–Whitney U-test), there were significantly higher rates of leaf emergence in the partially buried A. marina trees during the periods with the highest precipitation rates as opposed to the dry months (Fig. 4A; U = 302, P < 0.05, Mann–Whitney). There was also a general reduction in leaf emergence rates during the dry season with the controls being less affected (reduction of 17.75%) as compared to the silted trees (15 cm:– 71.88%, 30 cm:– 47.23%, and 45 cm:– 48.68%), resulting in thinner crowns. Leaf loss in this species was relatively higher during the dry season in controls and 15 and 45 cm sedimentation levels, but the same increase experienced during the short rains in the 30-cm level (Fig. 4B). Additionally, percentage number of shoots with leaf replacement rate higher than leaf loss rate was higher in the controls during the dry season and highest in the 15-cm partially buried trees during the wet months ( Fig. 6).

Bottom Line: Sedimentation results in the creation of new mudflats for mangroves to colonize among other benefits.However, large sediment input in mangrove areas may be detrimental to these forests.The dynamics of phenological events of three mangrove tree species (Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal, and Rhizophora mucronata) were evaluated under experimental sediment burial simulating sedimentation levels of 15, 30, and 45 cm.While there was generally no shift in timing of phenological events with sedimentation, the three mangrove tree species each responded differently to the treatments.Partially buried A. marina trees produced more leaves than the controls during the wet season and less during the dry season.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) Mombasa, Kenya ; Laboratory of Plant Biology and Nature Management (APNA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel B-1050, Brussels, Belgium ; Laboratory of Wood Biology and Xylarium, Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA) B-3080, Tervuren, Belgium ; Laboratory of Systems Ecology and Resource Management, Université libre de Bruxelles B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
Sedimentation results in the creation of new mudflats for mangroves to colonize among other benefits. However, large sediment input in mangrove areas may be detrimental to these forests. The dynamics of phenological events of three mangrove tree species (Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal, and Rhizophora mucronata) were evaluated under experimental sediment burial simulating sedimentation levels of 15, 30, and 45 cm.While there was generally no shift in timing of phenological events with sedimentation, the three mangrove tree species each responded differently to the treatments.Partially buried A. marina trees produced more leaves than the controls during the wet season and less during the dry season. Ceriops tagal on the other hand had higher leaf loss and low replacement rates in the partially buried trees during the first 6 months of the experiment but adapted with time, resulting in either equal or higher leaf emergence rates than the controls.Rhizophora mucronata maintained leaf emergence and loss patterns as the unaffected controls but had a higher fecundity and productivity in the 15-cm sedimentation level.The results suggest that under incidences of large sedimentation events (which could be witnessed as a result of climate change impacts coupled with anthropogenic disturbances), mangrove trees may capitalize on "advantages" associated with terrestrial sediment brought into the biotope, thus maintaining the pattern of phenological events.

No MeSH data available.