Effect of copper treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.
Bottom Line: This study demonstrated a copper-induced shift in the composition of functional genes of the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of copper treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge.This study determined the bacterial community structure of the common sponge Haliclona cymaeformis and examined the effect of copper treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition, revealing that copper treatment had a selective effect on the functions of the bacterial community in the sponge.Microscopic observation showed obvious bacterial aggregation and a reduction of sponge cell numbers in treated sponges, which suggested the formation of aggregates to reduce the copper concentration.
Affiliation: Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: Unweighted UniFrac clustering (determined by the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages [UPGMA]) of bacterial communities in the samples based on pyrosequencing indicated that the 2- and 4-day high-dose treatments changed the bacterial community composition in the sponge. In the jackknife tree in Fig. 1, the negative controls and low- and medium-dose-treated samples (N0, N2, L2, M2, N4, L4, and M4) clustered together in one group with similar pairwise distances. However, the high-dose-treated samples were distributed in a different group, which indicated that the bacterial community structure in the high-dose-treated sponges was different (H2 and H4). Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) of the bacterial communities revealed a similar pattern (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material). The negative-control and low- and medium-dose-treated samples formed an independent group (group 1) that was distinct from the 2- and 4-day high-dose treatment groups, which were separated by PC1 (explaining 23.7% of the variance).
Affiliation: Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong.