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Seasonality of water chemistry, carbonate production, and biometric features of two species of Chara in a shallow clear water lake.

Pukacz A, Pełechaty M, Frankowski M, Kowalski A, Zwijacz-Koszałka K - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: The results of physical-chemical analyses indicated similar habitat conditions for both species.The percentage of calcium carbonates in dry mass did not differ significantly between the species and exceeded 60%, reaching the maximum (76% in C. polyacantha) in July and August.For both species, distinct correlations between the structure of biomass and morphological features were found.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Polish-German Research Institute, Collegium Polonicum, Kościuszki 1, 69-100 Słubice, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal variability of biometric features and the carbonate production of two charophytes: Chara polyacantha A. Braun and Chara rudis A. Braun against the background of the physical-chemical properties of water. The investigation was carried out in a small, mid-forest Lake Jasne (western Poland). It is a polymictic, mesotrophic, hardwater ecosystem dominated by charophyte vegetation. Each month, 10 individuals of each species were characterized in terms of morphometric features, fresh and dry weight, and the percentage of calcium carbonate. Additionally, physical-chemical parameters of the water were studied. The results of physical-chemical analyses indicated similar habitat conditions for both species. Despite smaller dry weight C. polyacantha was characterized by greater morphological variability and higher rates of growth and percentage share of calcium carbonate in dry mass than C. rudis. The percentage of calcium carbonates in dry mass did not differ significantly between the species and exceeded 60%, reaching the maximum (76% in C. polyacantha) in July and August. For both species, distinct correlations between the structure of biomass and morphological features were found. The obtained results show the great importance of charophyte vegetation in carbon cycling and functioning of lake ecosystems.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of individuals of both studied species (CP: C. polyacantha site, CR: C. rudis site)—differentiation across morphological characteristics. The roman numbers mean the months of study. Dashed grey line defines the approximate limit of morphological variability of the species.
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fig4: The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of individuals of both studied species (CP: C. polyacantha site, CR: C. rudis site)—differentiation across morphological characteristics. The roman numbers mean the months of study. Dashed grey line defines the approximate limit of morphological variability of the species.

Mentions: To determine the morphological differentiation and define the most differentiating features for investigated species, PCA was performed (Figure 4). The results of this analysis indicated that the two species differed from one another in regard to morphological features, visible as two distinct clusters in the diagram. Generally it can be concluded that C. polyacantha is a long and fine species, whereas C. rudis is shorter, thicker, and more branchy. The first two main components accounted for almost 50% of the variance observed. Axis length, internode length, axis diameter (correlated with the first axis; r > 0.7) and branchlet length, and the number of axis nodes and of side branches (correlated with the second axis; r > 0.6) were the features primarily responsible for the variance observed. The results of an additionally performed Mann-Whitney U test revealed that these variables also most significantly differed between the two species (P < 0.05).


Seasonality of water chemistry, carbonate production, and biometric features of two species of Chara in a shallow clear water lake.

Pukacz A, Pełechaty M, Frankowski M, Kowalski A, Zwijacz-Koszałka K - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of individuals of both studied species (CP: C. polyacantha site, CR: C. rudis site)—differentiation across morphological characteristics. The roman numbers mean the months of study. Dashed grey line defines the approximate limit of morphological variability of the species.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221869&req=5

fig4: The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of individuals of both studied species (CP: C. polyacantha site, CR: C. rudis site)—differentiation across morphological characteristics. The roman numbers mean the months of study. Dashed grey line defines the approximate limit of morphological variability of the species.
Mentions: To determine the morphological differentiation and define the most differentiating features for investigated species, PCA was performed (Figure 4). The results of this analysis indicated that the two species differed from one another in regard to morphological features, visible as two distinct clusters in the diagram. Generally it can be concluded that C. polyacantha is a long and fine species, whereas C. rudis is shorter, thicker, and more branchy. The first two main components accounted for almost 50% of the variance observed. Axis length, internode length, axis diameter (correlated with the first axis; r > 0.7) and branchlet length, and the number of axis nodes and of side branches (correlated with the second axis; r > 0.6) were the features primarily responsible for the variance observed. The results of an additionally performed Mann-Whitney U test revealed that these variables also most significantly differed between the two species (P < 0.05).

Bottom Line: The results of physical-chemical analyses indicated similar habitat conditions for both species.The percentage of calcium carbonates in dry mass did not differ significantly between the species and exceeded 60%, reaching the maximum (76% in C. polyacantha) in July and August.For both species, distinct correlations between the structure of biomass and morphological features were found.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Polish-German Research Institute, Collegium Polonicum, Kościuszki 1, 69-100 Słubice, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal variability of biometric features and the carbonate production of two charophytes: Chara polyacantha A. Braun and Chara rudis A. Braun against the background of the physical-chemical properties of water. The investigation was carried out in a small, mid-forest Lake Jasne (western Poland). It is a polymictic, mesotrophic, hardwater ecosystem dominated by charophyte vegetation. Each month, 10 individuals of each species were characterized in terms of morphometric features, fresh and dry weight, and the percentage of calcium carbonate. Additionally, physical-chemical parameters of the water were studied. The results of physical-chemical analyses indicated similar habitat conditions for both species. Despite smaller dry weight C. polyacantha was characterized by greater morphological variability and higher rates of growth and percentage share of calcium carbonate in dry mass than C. rudis. The percentage of calcium carbonates in dry mass did not differ significantly between the species and exceeded 60%, reaching the maximum (76% in C. polyacantha) in July and August. For both species, distinct correlations between the structure of biomass and morphological features were found. The obtained results show the great importance of charophyte vegetation in carbon cycling and functioning of lake ecosystems.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus