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Antimicrobial-resistant genes associated with Salmonella spp. isolated from human, poultry, and seafood sources.

Adesiji YO, Deekshit VK, Karunasagar I - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: Antimicrobial-resistant salmonellosis is a significant public health concern globally.Resistance to tetracycline (TET), cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantion, and piperacillin/tazobactin was found in 66.7%, 60%, 53.3%, 50% and 50% of the isolates, respectively.The results show the presence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. in food samples from India and in human samples from Nigeria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Fisheries Microbiology, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries Mangalore, 575002, India.

ABSTRACT
Antimicrobial-resistant salmonellosis is a significant public health concern globally. A study was conducted to screen for Salmonella species from a total of 120 samples, of which 50 were retail meat samples purchased from five randomly selected sales outlets in the city of Mangalore, India. Twenty poultry fecal materials freshly voided before slaughter were obtained with sterile spatula and placed in sterile sealable polythene envelopes, and 20 clams were purchased from the estuaries of Nethravathi and Kankarnady market. In addition, 30 clinical isolates from Nigeria suspected to be Salmonella by only cultural characterization were also included in the study. In all, 30 samples-6 poultry, 8 seafood, and 16 Salmonella isolates from clinical samples-were confirmed positive by PCR and used in this study. The disk-diffusion test was performed to determine the zone of inhibition, and detection of resistance genes was tested by PCR targeting various antimicrobial genes. Resistance to tetracycline (TET), cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantion, and piperacillin/tazobactin was found in 66.7%, 60%, 53.3%, 50% and 50% of the isolates, respectively. About 60-100% of MDR isolates possessed antibiotic-resistant genes, of the tetracyclines resistant isolates, 20 (100%) 6 (30%), 7 (35%), and 10 (50%) carried tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetG genes, respectively. Of 18 cotrimoxazole-resistant strains, 18 (100%), 14 (77.7%), and 4 (22.2%) had sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes, respectively. Of the 14 multidrug-resistant isolates tested, 8 (61%) and 9 (69%) were positive for cmlA and cmlB genes, respectively, 10 (1.4%) tested positive for aph(3)11a genes, 8 (57%) tested positive for aac(3)lla, while none was positive for the aac6 gene. The results show the presence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. in food samples from India and in human samples from Nigeria.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

PCR amplification of invA gene. Lane M: 100 bp DNA Ladder (Genei TM, Merck Bangalore) Lane 1: Positive control (ATCC 14028) Lane 2: Negative control Lanes 3-5: Samples positive for Salmonella spp.
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fig01: PCR amplification of invA gene. Lane M: 100 bp DNA Ladder (Genei TM, Merck Bangalore) Lane 1: Positive control (ATCC 14028) Lane 2: Negative control Lanes 3-5: Samples positive for Salmonella spp.

Mentions: All the isolates used in the study were confirmed as Salmonella by PCR amplification of the hns and invA genes, which generated amplicons of 152 and 284 bp, respectively (Figs. 1 and 2). A total of 30 samples were confirmed positive for Salmonella by conventional as well as by molecular methods. Six Salmonella isolates from poultry, eight from seafood, and 16 from clinical samples were used in this study. Resistance to TET, cotrimoxazole, NA, NIT, and piperacillin/tazobactin was found in 20 (66.7%), 18 (60%), 16 (53.3%), 15 (50%) and 15 (50%) of the isolates, respectively. Resistance to chloramphenicol, CTX, AMP, and GEN was also detected in 20–10% of the isolates. About half (50.5%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. All of the 20 TET-resistant isolates carried tetA gene and 30% (6), 35% (7), and 50% (10) of the isolates carried tetB, tetC, and tetG genes, respectively. Figs 3 and 4 shows the plate of representative sample of tetA and tetB genes recovered from the isolates. Of 18 cotrimoxazole-resistant strains, 18(100%), 14 (77.8%), 4 (22.2%) had sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes, respectively. Table 2 shows the summary of resistant pattern and genes from all isolates. Six isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, but more isolates (10 of 14 multidrug resistant) were positive for floR and cat 2 genes, while 2 (30%) was positive for cat 3 genes. Of 14 multidrug-resistant isolates tested 8 (61%) and 9 (69%) were positive for cmlA and cmlB genes, respectively.


Antimicrobial-resistant genes associated with Salmonella spp. isolated from human, poultry, and seafood sources.

Adesiji YO, Deekshit VK, Karunasagar I - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

PCR amplification of invA gene. Lane M: 100 bp DNA Ladder (Genei TM, Merck Bangalore) Lane 1: Positive control (ATCC 14028) Lane 2: Negative control Lanes 3-5: Samples positive for Salmonella spp.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221842&req=5

fig01: PCR amplification of invA gene. Lane M: 100 bp DNA Ladder (Genei TM, Merck Bangalore) Lane 1: Positive control (ATCC 14028) Lane 2: Negative control Lanes 3-5: Samples positive for Salmonella spp.
Mentions: All the isolates used in the study were confirmed as Salmonella by PCR amplification of the hns and invA genes, which generated amplicons of 152 and 284 bp, respectively (Figs. 1 and 2). A total of 30 samples were confirmed positive for Salmonella by conventional as well as by molecular methods. Six Salmonella isolates from poultry, eight from seafood, and 16 from clinical samples were used in this study. Resistance to TET, cotrimoxazole, NA, NIT, and piperacillin/tazobactin was found in 20 (66.7%), 18 (60%), 16 (53.3%), 15 (50%) and 15 (50%) of the isolates, respectively. Resistance to chloramphenicol, CTX, AMP, and GEN was also detected in 20–10% of the isolates. About half (50.5%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. All of the 20 TET-resistant isolates carried tetA gene and 30% (6), 35% (7), and 50% (10) of the isolates carried tetB, tetC, and tetG genes, respectively. Figs 3 and 4 shows the plate of representative sample of tetA and tetB genes recovered from the isolates. Of 18 cotrimoxazole-resistant strains, 18(100%), 14 (77.8%), 4 (22.2%) had sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes, respectively. Table 2 shows the summary of resistant pattern and genes from all isolates. Six isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, but more isolates (10 of 14 multidrug resistant) were positive for floR and cat 2 genes, while 2 (30%) was positive for cat 3 genes. Of 14 multidrug-resistant isolates tested 8 (61%) and 9 (69%) were positive for cmlA and cmlB genes, respectively.

Bottom Line: Antimicrobial-resistant salmonellosis is a significant public health concern globally.Resistance to tetracycline (TET), cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantion, and piperacillin/tazobactin was found in 66.7%, 60%, 53.3%, 50% and 50% of the isolates, respectively.The results show the presence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. in food samples from India and in human samples from Nigeria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Fisheries Microbiology, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries Mangalore, 575002, India.

ABSTRACT
Antimicrobial-resistant salmonellosis is a significant public health concern globally. A study was conducted to screen for Salmonella species from a total of 120 samples, of which 50 were retail meat samples purchased from five randomly selected sales outlets in the city of Mangalore, India. Twenty poultry fecal materials freshly voided before slaughter were obtained with sterile spatula and placed in sterile sealable polythene envelopes, and 20 clams were purchased from the estuaries of Nethravathi and Kankarnady market. In addition, 30 clinical isolates from Nigeria suspected to be Salmonella by only cultural characterization were also included in the study. In all, 30 samples-6 poultry, 8 seafood, and 16 Salmonella isolates from clinical samples-were confirmed positive by PCR and used in this study. The disk-diffusion test was performed to determine the zone of inhibition, and detection of resistance genes was tested by PCR targeting various antimicrobial genes. Resistance to tetracycline (TET), cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantion, and piperacillin/tazobactin was found in 66.7%, 60%, 53.3%, 50% and 50% of the isolates, respectively. About 60-100% of MDR isolates possessed antibiotic-resistant genes, of the tetracyclines resistant isolates, 20 (100%) 6 (30%), 7 (35%), and 10 (50%) carried tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetG genes, respectively. Of 18 cotrimoxazole-resistant strains, 18 (100%), 14 (77.7%), and 4 (22.2%) had sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes, respectively. Of the 14 multidrug-resistant isolates tested, 8 (61%) and 9 (69%) were positive for cmlA and cmlB genes, respectively, 10 (1.4%) tested positive for aph(3)11a genes, 8 (57%) tested positive for aac(3)lla, while none was positive for the aac6 gene. The results show the presence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. in food samples from India and in human samples from Nigeria.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus