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Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

Esmaeilzadeh Kenari R, Mohsenzadeh F, Amiri ZR - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods.Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals.In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agriculture and Natural Resources University Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

EC50 (mg/mL): effective concentration at which the absorbance is 0.5. EM, ethanol-maceration; MM, methanol-maceration; E50M, ethanol:water (50:50)-maceration; M50M, methanol:water (50:50)-maceration; WM, water-maceration; EU, ethanol-ultrasonic; MU, methanol-ultrasonic; E50U, ethanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; M50U, methanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; WU, water-ultrasonic.
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fig03: EC50 (mg/mL): effective concentration at which the absorbance is 0.5. EM, ethanol-maceration; MM, methanol-maceration; E50M, ethanol:water (50:50)-maceration; M50M, methanol:water (50:50)-maceration; WM, water-maceration; EU, ethanol-ultrasonic; MU, methanol-ultrasonic; E50U, ethanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; M50U, methanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; WU, water-ultrasonic.

Mentions: Reducing power is often used as an indicator of electron donation which is the important mechanism to determine antioxidative activity of phenolic compound. Presence of reductants like antioxidants in tested sample will reduce Fe3+, so reducing capacity of antioxidant is an indicator of its antioxidative activity. The yellow color of the sample due to the extract concentration is changed to different halo of green and blue (Terpinc et al. 2012). The mechanism of reduction is breaking down the free radical chain and donating hydrogen atoms which depends on the antioxidative activity of reductant (Jamuna et al. 2010). FRAP assay is usually used for measuring antioxidative capacity of hydrophilic compounds (Pérez-Jiménez et al. 2008). So, in this research hydro-alchoholic and aqueous extracts in this assay indicated more antioxidative activity than other methods. Antioxidative activity was also increased with increase in extract concentration as can be seen in Table 5, after BHA as a synthetic antioxidant, ethanol:water (50:50) extracts in both maceration and ultrasonic extraction with no significant differences show the highest absorption in 700 nm with the amount of 1.132 nm ± 0.031 and 1.0745 nm ± 0.002 in 10 mg/mL, so the highest antioxidative activity related to ethanol/water (50:50) extracts. M50U with the amount of 0.978 ± 0.007 in 10 mg/mL was in the next degree. M50M, MU, and MM with no significant meaning were after that. These findings are in agreement with Trabelsi et al. (2010), the ethanol/water (50:50) extract of Limoniastrum monopetalum leaves was more effective than methanol/water (50:50) extract due to polarity and the nature of antioxidant. Despite the hydrophilic nature of this assay, aqueous extract shows the lowest antioxidative activity among extracts, but in comparison with other methods, antioxidative activity of aqueous extracts was higher. Generally, the lowest significant differences seen among extracts in this method are in agreement with Pe′rez-Jime′nez and Fulgencio (2006). They mentioned that FRAP has the lowest sensitivity to the solvent type and in proportion to other assays like DPPH, lower differences were seen among extracts in this assay. In this method, EC50 is the concentration of extract in which extract absorption reached 0.5. E50U and E50M in the concentration of 3.805 ± 0.21 mg/mL and 3.827 ± 0.038 mg/mL reached the absorption of 0.5. So, they show the highest antioxidative activity. As can be seen in Figure 3, WU and WM had the lowest antioxidant activity with the highest amount of EC50.


Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

Esmaeilzadeh Kenari R, Mohsenzadeh F, Amiri ZR - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

EC50 (mg/mL): effective concentration at which the absorbance is 0.5. EM, ethanol-maceration; MM, methanol-maceration; E50M, ethanol:water (50:50)-maceration; M50M, methanol:water (50:50)-maceration; WM, water-maceration; EU, ethanol-ultrasonic; MU, methanol-ultrasonic; E50U, ethanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; M50U, methanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; WU, water-ultrasonic.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221841&req=5

fig03: EC50 (mg/mL): effective concentration at which the absorbance is 0.5. EM, ethanol-maceration; MM, methanol-maceration; E50M, ethanol:water (50:50)-maceration; M50M, methanol:water (50:50)-maceration; WM, water-maceration; EU, ethanol-ultrasonic; MU, methanol-ultrasonic; E50U, ethanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; M50U, methanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; WU, water-ultrasonic.
Mentions: Reducing power is often used as an indicator of electron donation which is the important mechanism to determine antioxidative activity of phenolic compound. Presence of reductants like antioxidants in tested sample will reduce Fe3+, so reducing capacity of antioxidant is an indicator of its antioxidative activity. The yellow color of the sample due to the extract concentration is changed to different halo of green and blue (Terpinc et al. 2012). The mechanism of reduction is breaking down the free radical chain and donating hydrogen atoms which depends on the antioxidative activity of reductant (Jamuna et al. 2010). FRAP assay is usually used for measuring antioxidative capacity of hydrophilic compounds (Pérez-Jiménez et al. 2008). So, in this research hydro-alchoholic and aqueous extracts in this assay indicated more antioxidative activity than other methods. Antioxidative activity was also increased with increase in extract concentration as can be seen in Table 5, after BHA as a synthetic antioxidant, ethanol:water (50:50) extracts in both maceration and ultrasonic extraction with no significant differences show the highest absorption in 700 nm with the amount of 1.132 nm ± 0.031 and 1.0745 nm ± 0.002 in 10 mg/mL, so the highest antioxidative activity related to ethanol/water (50:50) extracts. M50U with the amount of 0.978 ± 0.007 in 10 mg/mL was in the next degree. M50M, MU, and MM with no significant meaning were after that. These findings are in agreement with Trabelsi et al. (2010), the ethanol/water (50:50) extract of Limoniastrum monopetalum leaves was more effective than methanol/water (50:50) extract due to polarity and the nature of antioxidant. Despite the hydrophilic nature of this assay, aqueous extract shows the lowest antioxidative activity among extracts, but in comparison with other methods, antioxidative activity of aqueous extracts was higher. Generally, the lowest significant differences seen among extracts in this method are in agreement with Pe′rez-Jime′nez and Fulgencio (2006). They mentioned that FRAP has the lowest sensitivity to the solvent type and in proportion to other assays like DPPH, lower differences were seen among extracts in this assay. In this method, EC50 is the concentration of extract in which extract absorption reached 0.5. E50U and E50M in the concentration of 3.805 ± 0.21 mg/mL and 3.827 ± 0.038 mg/mL reached the absorption of 0.5. So, they show the highest antioxidative activity. As can be seen in Figure 3, WU and WM had the lowest antioxidant activity with the highest amount of EC50.

Bottom Line: Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods.Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals.In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agriculture and Natural Resources University Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus