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Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

Esmaeilzadeh Kenari R, Mohsenzadeh F, Amiri ZR - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent.Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals.In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agriculture and Natural Resources University Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Inhibition percent in β-caroten-linoleic acid system. EM, ethanol-maceration; MM, methanol-maceration; E50M, ethanol:water (50:50)-maceration; M50M, methanol:water (50:50)-maceration; WM, water-maceration; EU, ethanol-ultrasonic; MU, methanol-ultrasonic; E50U, ethanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; M50U, methanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; WU, water-ultrasonic.
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fig02: Inhibition percent in β-caroten-linoleic acid system. EM, ethanol-maceration; MM, methanol-maceration; E50M, ethanol:water (50:50)-maceration; M50M, methanol:water (50:50)-maceration; WM, water-maceration; EU, ethanol-ultrasonic; MU, methanol-ultrasonic; E50U, ethanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; M50U, methanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; WU, water-ultrasonic.

Mentions: Synthetic radicals like DPPH are important tools to show the antioxidant activity power, however, they do not use biological oxidizable substrate, so no direct information is determined from extract inhibition activity (Dorman et al. 2003). That is why we measured antioxidant activity of extract in the water:oil β-carotene/linoleic acid emulsion. In this method, peroxyl free radicals are made from linoleic acid oxidation due to the absorption of hydrogen atoms from diallylic methylen groups of linoleic acid. These radicals will oxidize unsaturated β-carotene. β-carotene oxidation minimized when there was an encounter with antioxidants. The antioxidants of extract will decompose produced hydroperoxide in the system. Therefore, the amount of β-carotene decomposed is related to the antioxidant activity of extract (Mohdaly et al. 2011). The effect of sesame cake extracts on the β-carotene oxidation has been shown in Figure 2. It is obvious that the presence of antioxidant in the sesame cake decreases β-carotene oxidation. The extract could be able to scavenge free radicals in the heterogenous medium. So these extracts may be used as antioxidant retentive in emulsion systems (Osawa 1994). The extracts obtained from different solvents, show different degrees of antioxidant activity. EU with the inhibition percent of 45.64 showed maximum antioxidant activity with significant differences than others. EM and MU with no significant differences were after that. The lowest amount of antioxidative activity with no significant differences belonged to WM and WU with the amount of 19.1 and 19.78. Jayaprakasha et al. (2001) mentioned that ethanolic extract of Camelina showed higher antioxidative activity than methanolic one in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, although in DPPH assay methanolic extract was more effective. They mentioned that ethanolic extract contained less polar antioxidants, in addition, butylated hydroxy toluene as a nonpolar synthetic antioxidant indicated higher inhibition. These results together suggest that the polar antioxidant existent in the aqueous phase of emulsion were in the lipid phase with lower concentration. So they were less effective to protect emulsified linoleic acid. While lipophilic antioxidants due to their higher concentration in a lipid phase, indicated higher activity in the emulsion (Moure et al. 2001; Terpinc et al. 2011). These antioxidants concentrate in a oil:air surface and ensure higher protective effect on emulsion (Koleva et al. 2002). As a consequence, this assay just indicates the effect of lipophilic antioxidant, because the medium of this method acts as oil in water emulsion system (Miraliakbari and Shahidi 2008). Suja et al. (2005) measured antioxidative activity of sesame cake methanolic extract by β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. They mentioned that the inhibition percent in a concentration of 100 and 200 ppm of extract were 41.7 and 46.6.


Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

Esmaeilzadeh Kenari R, Mohsenzadeh F, Amiri ZR - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Inhibition percent in β-caroten-linoleic acid system. EM, ethanol-maceration; MM, methanol-maceration; E50M, ethanol:water (50:50)-maceration; M50M, methanol:water (50:50)-maceration; WM, water-maceration; EU, ethanol-ultrasonic; MU, methanol-ultrasonic; E50U, ethanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; M50U, methanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; WU, water-ultrasonic.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221841&req=5

fig02: Inhibition percent in β-caroten-linoleic acid system. EM, ethanol-maceration; MM, methanol-maceration; E50M, ethanol:water (50:50)-maceration; M50M, methanol:water (50:50)-maceration; WM, water-maceration; EU, ethanol-ultrasonic; MU, methanol-ultrasonic; E50U, ethanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; M50U, methanol:water (50:50)-ultrasonic; WU, water-ultrasonic.
Mentions: Synthetic radicals like DPPH are important tools to show the antioxidant activity power, however, they do not use biological oxidizable substrate, so no direct information is determined from extract inhibition activity (Dorman et al. 2003). That is why we measured antioxidant activity of extract in the water:oil β-carotene/linoleic acid emulsion. In this method, peroxyl free radicals are made from linoleic acid oxidation due to the absorption of hydrogen atoms from diallylic methylen groups of linoleic acid. These radicals will oxidize unsaturated β-carotene. β-carotene oxidation minimized when there was an encounter with antioxidants. The antioxidants of extract will decompose produced hydroperoxide in the system. Therefore, the amount of β-carotene decomposed is related to the antioxidant activity of extract (Mohdaly et al. 2011). The effect of sesame cake extracts on the β-carotene oxidation has been shown in Figure 2. It is obvious that the presence of antioxidant in the sesame cake decreases β-carotene oxidation. The extract could be able to scavenge free radicals in the heterogenous medium. So these extracts may be used as antioxidant retentive in emulsion systems (Osawa 1994). The extracts obtained from different solvents, show different degrees of antioxidant activity. EU with the inhibition percent of 45.64 showed maximum antioxidant activity with significant differences than others. EM and MU with no significant differences were after that. The lowest amount of antioxidative activity with no significant differences belonged to WM and WU with the amount of 19.1 and 19.78. Jayaprakasha et al. (2001) mentioned that ethanolic extract of Camelina showed higher antioxidative activity than methanolic one in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, although in DPPH assay methanolic extract was more effective. They mentioned that ethanolic extract contained less polar antioxidants, in addition, butylated hydroxy toluene as a nonpolar synthetic antioxidant indicated higher inhibition. These results together suggest that the polar antioxidant existent in the aqueous phase of emulsion were in the lipid phase with lower concentration. So they were less effective to protect emulsified linoleic acid. While lipophilic antioxidants due to their higher concentration in a lipid phase, indicated higher activity in the emulsion (Moure et al. 2001; Terpinc et al. 2011). These antioxidants concentrate in a oil:air surface and ensure higher protective effect on emulsion (Koleva et al. 2002). As a consequence, this assay just indicates the effect of lipophilic antioxidant, because the medium of this method acts as oil in water emulsion system (Miraliakbari and Shahidi 2008). Suja et al. (2005) measured antioxidative activity of sesame cake methanolic extract by β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. They mentioned that the inhibition percent in a concentration of 100 and 200 ppm of extract were 41.7 and 46.6.

Bottom Line: The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent.Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals.In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agriculture and Natural Resources University Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus