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Detection and characterization of zoonotic pathogens of free-ranging non-human primates from Zambia.

Nakayima J, Hayashida K, Nakao R, Ishii A, Ogawa H, Nakamura I, Moonga L, Hang'ombe BM, Mweene AS, Thomas Y, Orba Y, Sawa H, Sugimoto C - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Bottom Line: The amplified products were then subjected to sequencing analysis.We detected three different pathogenic agents, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 12 samples (13.6%), Rickettsia spp. in 35 samples (39.8%) and Babesia spp. in 2 samples (2.3%).The continuously increasing contacts between humans and primate populations raise concerns about transmission of pathogens between these groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Collaboration and Education, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Kita 20, Nishi 10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 001-0020, Japan. jescanl2001@yahoo.co.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Wildlife may harbor infectious pathogens that are of zoonotic concern acting as a reservoir of diseases transmissible to humans and domestic animals. This is due to human-wildlife conflicts that have become more frequent and severe over recent decades, competition for the available natural habitats and resources leading to increased human encroachment on previously wild and uninhabited areas.

Methods: A total of 88 spleen DNA samples from baboons and vervet monkeys from Zambia were tested for zoonotic pathogens using genus or species-specific PCR. The amplified products were then subjected to sequencing analysis.

Results: We detected three different pathogenic agents, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 12 samples (13.6%), Rickettsia spp. in 35 samples (39.8%) and Babesia spp. in 2 samples (2.3%).

Conclusion: The continuously increasing contacts between humans and primate populations raise concerns about transmission of pathogens between these groups. Therefore, increased medical and public awareness and public health surveillance support will be required to detect and control infections caused by these agents at the interface between humans and wildlife.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic positions of the pathogens (R. africae: A, 426 bp, 16S rRNA;A.phagocytophilum:B, 345bp 16S rRNA andB. microtiC,238bp, 18S rRNA) detected in primates from Zambia based on 16S rRNA or 18S rRNA sequences respectively. The tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method and ClustalW alignment, and numbers on the tree indicate 1000 bootstrap values for branch points. Accession numbers are indicated.
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Fig2: Phylogenetic positions of the pathogens (R. africae: A, 426 bp, 16S rRNA;A.phagocytophilum:B, 345bp 16S rRNA andB. microtiC,238bp, 18S rRNA) detected in primates from Zambia based on 16S rRNA or 18S rRNA sequences respectively. The tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method and ClustalW alignment, and numbers on the tree indicate 1000 bootstrap values for branch points. Accession numbers are indicated.

Mentions: We detected Rickettsia spp. in a total of 35 samples (39.8%). Further sequencing analysis revealed that some of the sequences were highly similar to that of R. africae (FigureĀ 2). This is an agent of African tick bite fever, an acute and flu-like illness that is frequently accompanied by severe headache, inoculation eschars with regional lymphadenitis, vesicular cutaneous rash, and aphthous stomatitis [18,19]. The disease is transmitted in rural sub-Saharan Africa by ungulate ticks of the Amblyomma genus, mainly Amblyomma hebraeum in southern Africa and Amblyomma variegatum in west, central, and east Africa [20]. Phylogenetic comparisons between our obtained sequence and previous studies worldwide revealed a close relationship between Zambian and Nigerian R. africae isolates, suggesting general occurrence of rickettsioses in African continent.Figure 2


Detection and characterization of zoonotic pathogens of free-ranging non-human primates from Zambia.

Nakayima J, Hayashida K, Nakao R, Ishii A, Ogawa H, Nakamura I, Moonga L, Hang'ombe BM, Mweene AS, Thomas Y, Orba Y, Sawa H, Sugimoto C - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Phylogenetic positions of the pathogens (R. africae: A, 426 bp, 16S rRNA;A.phagocytophilum:B, 345bp 16S rRNA andB. microtiC,238bp, 18S rRNA) detected in primates from Zambia based on 16S rRNA or 18S rRNA sequences respectively. The tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method and ClustalW alignment, and numbers on the tree indicate 1000 bootstrap values for branch points. Accession numbers are indicated.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221724&req=5

Fig2: Phylogenetic positions of the pathogens (R. africae: A, 426 bp, 16S rRNA;A.phagocytophilum:B, 345bp 16S rRNA andB. microtiC,238bp, 18S rRNA) detected in primates from Zambia based on 16S rRNA or 18S rRNA sequences respectively. The tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method and ClustalW alignment, and numbers on the tree indicate 1000 bootstrap values for branch points. Accession numbers are indicated.
Mentions: We detected Rickettsia spp. in a total of 35 samples (39.8%). Further sequencing analysis revealed that some of the sequences were highly similar to that of R. africae (FigureĀ 2). This is an agent of African tick bite fever, an acute and flu-like illness that is frequently accompanied by severe headache, inoculation eschars with regional lymphadenitis, vesicular cutaneous rash, and aphthous stomatitis [18,19]. The disease is transmitted in rural sub-Saharan Africa by ungulate ticks of the Amblyomma genus, mainly Amblyomma hebraeum in southern Africa and Amblyomma variegatum in west, central, and east Africa [20]. Phylogenetic comparisons between our obtained sequence and previous studies worldwide revealed a close relationship between Zambian and Nigerian R. africae isolates, suggesting general occurrence of rickettsioses in African continent.Figure 2

Bottom Line: The amplified products were then subjected to sequencing analysis.We detected three different pathogenic agents, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 12 samples (13.6%), Rickettsia spp. in 35 samples (39.8%) and Babesia spp. in 2 samples (2.3%).The continuously increasing contacts between humans and primate populations raise concerns about transmission of pathogens between these groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Collaboration and Education, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Kita 20, Nishi 10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 001-0020, Japan. jescanl2001@yahoo.co.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Wildlife may harbor infectious pathogens that are of zoonotic concern acting as a reservoir of diseases transmissible to humans and domestic animals. This is due to human-wildlife conflicts that have become more frequent and severe over recent decades, competition for the available natural habitats and resources leading to increased human encroachment on previously wild and uninhabited areas.

Methods: A total of 88 spleen DNA samples from baboons and vervet monkeys from Zambia were tested for zoonotic pathogens using genus or species-specific PCR. The amplified products were then subjected to sequencing analysis.

Results: We detected three different pathogenic agents, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 12 samples (13.6%), Rickettsia spp. in 35 samples (39.8%) and Babesia spp. in 2 samples (2.3%).

Conclusion: The continuously increasing contacts between humans and primate populations raise concerns about transmission of pathogens between these groups. Therefore, increased medical and public awareness and public health surveillance support will be required to detect and control infections caused by these agents at the interface between humans and wildlife.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus