Limits...
International variation in neighborhood walkability, transit, and recreation environments using geographic information systems: the IPEN adult study.

Adams MA, Frank LD, Schipperijn J, Smith G, Chapman J, Christiansen LB, Coffee N, Salvo D, du Toit L, Dygrýn J, Hino AA, Lai PC, Mavoa S, Pinzón JD, Van de Weghe N, Cerin E, Davey R, Macfarlane D, Owen N, Sallis JF - Int J Health Geogr (2014)

Bottom Line: Results show that comparable measures can be created across a range of cultural settings revealing profound global differences in urban form relevant to physical activity.The highly variable measures of urban form will be used to explain individuals' physical activity, sedentary behaviors, body mass index, and other health outcomes on an international basis.Present measures provide the ability to estimate dose-response relationships from projected changes to the built environment that would otherwise be impossible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Exercise and Wellness Program, School of Nutrition and Health Promotion & Global Institute of Sustainability (GIOS), Arizona State University, 425 N, 5th Street (MC3020), Phoenix, Arizona. marc.adams@asu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization recommends strategies to improve urban design, public transportation, and recreation facilities to facilitate physical activity for non-communicable disease prevention for an increasingly urbanized global population. Most evidence supporting environmental associations with physical activity comes from single countries or regions with limited variation in urban form. This paper documents variation in comparable built environment features across countries from diverse regions.

Methods: The International Physical Activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) study of adults aimed to measure the full range of variation in the built environment using geographic information systems (GIS) across 12 countries on 5 continents. Investigators in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States followed a common research protocol to develop internationally comparable measures. Using detailed instructions, GIS-based measures included features such as walkability (i.e., residential density, street connectivity, mix of land uses), and access to public transit, parks, and private recreation facilities around each participant's residential address using 1-km and 500-m street network buffers.

Results: Eleven of 12 countries and 15 cities had objective GIS data on built environment features. We observed a 38-fold difference in median residential densities, a 5-fold difference in median intersection densities and an 18-fold difference in median park densities. Hong Kong had the highest and North Shore, New Zealand had the lowest median walkability index values, representing a difference of 9 standard deviations in GIS-measured walkability.

Conclusions: Results show that comparable measures can be created across a range of cultural settings revealing profound global differences in urban form relevant to physical activity. These measures allow cities to be ranked more precisely than previously possible. The highly variable measures of urban form will be used to explain individuals' physical activity, sedentary behaviors, body mass index, and other health outcomes on an international basis. Present measures provide the ability to estimate dose-response relationships from projected changes to the built environment that would otherwise be impossible.

Show MeSH
Density of parks (any size) using participants’ 1-km network buffers across cities and countries. Circles are outliers that extend past the whiskers and asterisks represent extreme outliers defined as values greater than three times the length of the interquartile range.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221715&req=5

Fig8: Density of parks (any size) using participants’ 1-km network buffers across cities and countries. Circles are outliers that extend past the whiskers and asterisks represent extreme outliers defined as values greater than three times the length of the interquartile range.

Mentions: Park access was defined as access to a government-designated park of any size that was free and open to the public and maintained by a government agency. Parks included improved and unimproved areas. The comparability evaluation noted that 11 countries were able to identify park datasets for 15 cities; sources varied from government supplied lists to aerial photography. All of the countries were able to quantify the density of parks for six park sizes (i.e., <0.25 acres to >50 acres). The evaluation noted all countries counted park polygons if any portion of the park intersected with participants’ buffers. Park density was computed as the number of parks (numerator) divided by the entire buffer area.Figure 8 shows the median densities of parks (of any size) ranged from a low of 0.79 parks per square km in Cuernavaca, MEX to a high of 17.33 parks per sq km in Bogotá, COL. Median park densities across cities reflected an exponentially increasing type pattern. Within country variation in park densities appeared to increase with higher densities. The pooled median was 4.27 parks per sq km.Figure 8


International variation in neighborhood walkability, transit, and recreation environments using geographic information systems: the IPEN adult study.

Adams MA, Frank LD, Schipperijn J, Smith G, Chapman J, Christiansen LB, Coffee N, Salvo D, du Toit L, Dygrýn J, Hino AA, Lai PC, Mavoa S, Pinzón JD, Van de Weghe N, Cerin E, Davey R, Macfarlane D, Owen N, Sallis JF - Int J Health Geogr (2014)

Density of parks (any size) using participants’ 1-km network buffers across cities and countries. Circles are outliers that extend past the whiskers and asterisks represent extreme outliers defined as values greater than three times the length of the interquartile range.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221715&req=5

Fig8: Density of parks (any size) using participants’ 1-km network buffers across cities and countries. Circles are outliers that extend past the whiskers and asterisks represent extreme outliers defined as values greater than three times the length of the interquartile range.
Mentions: Park access was defined as access to a government-designated park of any size that was free and open to the public and maintained by a government agency. Parks included improved and unimproved areas. The comparability evaluation noted that 11 countries were able to identify park datasets for 15 cities; sources varied from government supplied lists to aerial photography. All of the countries were able to quantify the density of parks for six park sizes (i.e., <0.25 acres to >50 acres). The evaluation noted all countries counted park polygons if any portion of the park intersected with participants’ buffers. Park density was computed as the number of parks (numerator) divided by the entire buffer area.Figure 8 shows the median densities of parks (of any size) ranged from a low of 0.79 parks per square km in Cuernavaca, MEX to a high of 17.33 parks per sq km in Bogotá, COL. Median park densities across cities reflected an exponentially increasing type pattern. Within country variation in park densities appeared to increase with higher densities. The pooled median was 4.27 parks per sq km.Figure 8

Bottom Line: Results show that comparable measures can be created across a range of cultural settings revealing profound global differences in urban form relevant to physical activity.The highly variable measures of urban form will be used to explain individuals' physical activity, sedentary behaviors, body mass index, and other health outcomes on an international basis.Present measures provide the ability to estimate dose-response relationships from projected changes to the built environment that would otherwise be impossible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Exercise and Wellness Program, School of Nutrition and Health Promotion & Global Institute of Sustainability (GIOS), Arizona State University, 425 N, 5th Street (MC3020), Phoenix, Arizona. marc.adams@asu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization recommends strategies to improve urban design, public transportation, and recreation facilities to facilitate physical activity for non-communicable disease prevention for an increasingly urbanized global population. Most evidence supporting environmental associations with physical activity comes from single countries or regions with limited variation in urban form. This paper documents variation in comparable built environment features across countries from diverse regions.

Methods: The International Physical Activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) study of adults aimed to measure the full range of variation in the built environment using geographic information systems (GIS) across 12 countries on 5 continents. Investigators in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States followed a common research protocol to develop internationally comparable measures. Using detailed instructions, GIS-based measures included features such as walkability (i.e., residential density, street connectivity, mix of land uses), and access to public transit, parks, and private recreation facilities around each participant's residential address using 1-km and 500-m street network buffers.

Results: Eleven of 12 countries and 15 cities had objective GIS data on built environment features. We observed a 38-fold difference in median residential densities, a 5-fold difference in median intersection densities and an 18-fold difference in median park densities. Hong Kong had the highest and North Shore, New Zealand had the lowest median walkability index values, representing a difference of 9 standard deviations in GIS-measured walkability.

Conclusions: Results show that comparable measures can be created across a range of cultural settings revealing profound global differences in urban form relevant to physical activity. These measures allow cities to be ranked more precisely than previously possible. The highly variable measures of urban form will be used to explain individuals' physical activity, sedentary behaviors, body mass index, and other health outcomes on an international basis. Present measures provide the ability to estimate dose-response relationships from projected changes to the built environment that would otherwise be impossible.

Show MeSH