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Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: discounting of monetary and consumable outcomes in current and non-smokers.

Friedel JE, DeHart WB, Madden GJ, Odum AL - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2014)

Bottom Line: Cigarette smoking is associated with steeper discounting of delayed money.Non-smokers discounted money less steeply than all other outcomes; smokers discounted money significantly less than food.When compared to nonsmokers, cigarette smokers more steeply discount several types of delayed outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Utah State University, 2810 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, 84322, USA.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: In delay discounting, temporally remote rewards have less value. Cigarette smoking is associated with steeper discounting of delayed money. The generality of this to nonmonetary outcomes, however, is unknown.

Objectives: We sought to determine whether cigarette smokers also show steep discounting of other delayed outcomes.

Methods: Sixty-five participants (32 smokers and 33 non-smokers) completed four delay-discounting tasks, each involving different hypothetical outcomes. In the monetary task, participants indicated their preference for a smaller amount of money available immediately (titrated across trials) and $100 awarded at delays ranging from 1 week to 25 years (tested in blocks). In the three other discounting tasks the larger-later reward was $100 worth of a favorite food, alcoholic drink, or a favorite form of entertainment. All other aspects of these discounting tasks were identical to the monetary discounting task.

Results: As previously shown, smokers discounted delayed money more steeply than non-smokers did. In addition, smokers discounted delayed food and entertainment rewards more steeply than did nonsmokers. A person's discounting of one outcome was correlated with discounting of other outcomes. Non-smokers discounted money less steeply than all other outcomes; smokers discounted money significantly less than food.

Conclusions: When compared to nonsmokers, cigarette smokers more steeply discount several types of delayed outcomes. This result, together with the finding that cross-commodity discounting rates were correlated within subjects, suggests that delay discounting is a trait that extends across domains.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Discounting functions for smokers and non-smokers for the commodities of money, alcohol, food, and entertainment. In all four panels, the points show median indifference points and lines show the best fitting hyperbola like discounting function (Myerson and Green 1995). Insets for the commodities of alcohol, entertainment, and food are the same data with the x-axis scaled to show indifference points at the shortest delays. In some cases, data points may overlap
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Fig1: Discounting functions for smokers and non-smokers for the commodities of money, alcohol, food, and entertainment. In all four panels, the points show median indifference points and lines show the best fitting hyperbola like discounting function (Myerson and Green 1995). Insets for the commodities of alcohol, entertainment, and food are the same data with the x-axis scaled to show indifference points at the shortest delays. In some cases, data points may overlap

Mentions: Figure 1 shows the median indifference points, expressed as a proportion of the delayed reward amount at each delay, in the four delay discounting tasks for smokers and non-smokers. The insets in the panels for alcohol, entertainment, and food constrain the x-axis to more clearly show the indifference points at the shortest delays. The hyperboloid decay functions (Myerson and Green 1995) were fit to the median indifference points. Table 3 lists the obtained best-fit parameters of Eq. 1, k and s for each group and commodity as well as goodness of fit of the model, R2. The hyperboloid model had R2 values that were greater than 0.9 for seven of the eight data sets obtained, with the model performing relatively poorly for alcohol for smokers (R2 = 0.71).Fig. 1


Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: discounting of monetary and consumable outcomes in current and non-smokers.

Friedel JE, DeHart WB, Madden GJ, Odum AL - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2014)

Discounting functions for smokers and non-smokers for the commodities of money, alcohol, food, and entertainment. In all four panels, the points show median indifference points and lines show the best fitting hyperbola like discounting function (Myerson and Green 1995). Insets for the commodities of alcohol, entertainment, and food are the same data with the x-axis scaled to show indifference points at the shortest delays. In some cases, data points may overlap
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221621&req=5

Fig1: Discounting functions for smokers and non-smokers for the commodities of money, alcohol, food, and entertainment. In all four panels, the points show median indifference points and lines show the best fitting hyperbola like discounting function (Myerson and Green 1995). Insets for the commodities of alcohol, entertainment, and food are the same data with the x-axis scaled to show indifference points at the shortest delays. In some cases, data points may overlap
Mentions: Figure 1 shows the median indifference points, expressed as a proportion of the delayed reward amount at each delay, in the four delay discounting tasks for smokers and non-smokers. The insets in the panels for alcohol, entertainment, and food constrain the x-axis to more clearly show the indifference points at the shortest delays. The hyperboloid decay functions (Myerson and Green 1995) were fit to the median indifference points. Table 3 lists the obtained best-fit parameters of Eq. 1, k and s for each group and commodity as well as goodness of fit of the model, R2. The hyperboloid model had R2 values that were greater than 0.9 for seven of the eight data sets obtained, with the model performing relatively poorly for alcohol for smokers (R2 = 0.71).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Cigarette smoking is associated with steeper discounting of delayed money.Non-smokers discounted money less steeply than all other outcomes; smokers discounted money significantly less than food.When compared to nonsmokers, cigarette smokers more steeply discount several types of delayed outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Utah State University, 2810 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, 84322, USA.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: In delay discounting, temporally remote rewards have less value. Cigarette smoking is associated with steeper discounting of delayed money. The generality of this to nonmonetary outcomes, however, is unknown.

Objectives: We sought to determine whether cigarette smokers also show steep discounting of other delayed outcomes.

Methods: Sixty-five participants (32 smokers and 33 non-smokers) completed four delay-discounting tasks, each involving different hypothetical outcomes. In the monetary task, participants indicated their preference for a smaller amount of money available immediately (titrated across trials) and $100 awarded at delays ranging from 1 week to 25 years (tested in blocks). In the three other discounting tasks the larger-later reward was $100 worth of a favorite food, alcoholic drink, or a favorite form of entertainment. All other aspects of these discounting tasks were identical to the monetary discounting task.

Results: As previously shown, smokers discounted delayed money more steeply than non-smokers did. In addition, smokers discounted delayed food and entertainment rewards more steeply than did nonsmokers. A person's discounting of one outcome was correlated with discounting of other outcomes. Non-smokers discounted money less steeply than all other outcomes; smokers discounted money significantly less than food.

Conclusions: When compared to nonsmokers, cigarette smokers more steeply discount several types of delayed outcomes. This result, together with the finding that cross-commodity discounting rates were correlated within subjects, suggests that delay discounting is a trait that extends across domains.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus