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Metrical presentation boosts implicit learning of artificial grammar.

Selchenkova T, François C, Schön D, Corneyllie A, Perrin F, Tillmann B - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation.Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups.These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Auditory Cognition and Psychoacoustics Team, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5292, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 1028, University Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation. Our study combined behavioral and event-related potential measurements. Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups. By contrast, analyses of event-related potentials showed a larger P300 component and an earlier N2 component for the strongly metrical group during the exposure phase and the test phase, respectively. These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Test phase: Grand-average ERPs for grammatical (solid line) and ungrammatical (dashed line) target tones in the Strongly Metrical (left side) group and Isochronous group (right side).Each site represents the mean of the five electrodes included in the ROI (LF, left frontal; LC, left central; LP, left parietal; RF, right frontal; RC, right central; RP, right parietal). Grey rectangles indicate time windows of ascending (light grey) and descending (dark grey) part of the N2 chosen for the analyses.
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pone-0112233-g005: Test phase: Grand-average ERPs for grammatical (solid line) and ungrammatical (dashed line) target tones in the Strongly Metrical (left side) group and Isochronous group (right side).Each site represents the mean of the five electrodes included in the ROI (LF, left frontal; LC, left central; LP, left parietal; RF, right frontal; RC, right central; RP, right parietal). Grey rectangles indicate time windows of ascending (light grey) and descending (dark grey) part of the N2 chosen for the analyses.

Mentions: For the N2 component, the main effect of grammaticality was significant, F(1,24) = 11.06, p = .003, with a larger negativity for ungrammatical target tones than for grammatical target tones (grammatical, −0.22 µV, ungrammatical, −1.15 µV) (Figures 5 and 6). The interaction between grammaticality, group and region was significant, F(2,48) = 4.91, p = .031: The effect of grammaticality was stronger for the SM group than for the Iso group, and this was modified by region. The separate analyses of ascending (180–230 ms) and descending (230–280 ms) parts of the N2 revealed an interaction between grammaticality, group and region only for the ascending part (F(2,48) = 4.99, p = .031): While the SM group showed an effect of grammaticality over central and parietal regions (all ps<.003), no differences due to grammaticality were visible in the Iso group (all ps>.08). The analysis of the descending part revealed only a main effect of grammaticality (F(1,24) = 9.42, p = .005), with a larger negativity for ungrammatical tones than for grammatical tones. The main effect of group and the interactions involving group were not significant (ps>.18). Note that we also performed a statistical analysis in the N1 time window (85–125 ms), but neither the main effect of grammaticality (p>.42) nor the interaction between grammaticality and group (p>.97) were significant.


Metrical presentation boosts implicit learning of artificial grammar.

Selchenkova T, François C, Schön D, Corneyllie A, Perrin F, Tillmann B - PLoS ONE (2014)

Test phase: Grand-average ERPs for grammatical (solid line) and ungrammatical (dashed line) target tones in the Strongly Metrical (left side) group and Isochronous group (right side).Each site represents the mean of the five electrodes included in the ROI (LF, left frontal; LC, left central; LP, left parietal; RF, right frontal; RC, right central; RP, right parietal). Grey rectangles indicate time windows of ascending (light grey) and descending (dark grey) part of the N2 chosen for the analyses.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221617&req=5

pone-0112233-g005: Test phase: Grand-average ERPs for grammatical (solid line) and ungrammatical (dashed line) target tones in the Strongly Metrical (left side) group and Isochronous group (right side).Each site represents the mean of the five electrodes included in the ROI (LF, left frontal; LC, left central; LP, left parietal; RF, right frontal; RC, right central; RP, right parietal). Grey rectangles indicate time windows of ascending (light grey) and descending (dark grey) part of the N2 chosen for the analyses.
Mentions: For the N2 component, the main effect of grammaticality was significant, F(1,24) = 11.06, p = .003, with a larger negativity for ungrammatical target tones than for grammatical target tones (grammatical, −0.22 µV, ungrammatical, −1.15 µV) (Figures 5 and 6). The interaction between grammaticality, group and region was significant, F(2,48) = 4.91, p = .031: The effect of grammaticality was stronger for the SM group than for the Iso group, and this was modified by region. The separate analyses of ascending (180–230 ms) and descending (230–280 ms) parts of the N2 revealed an interaction between grammaticality, group and region only for the ascending part (F(2,48) = 4.99, p = .031): While the SM group showed an effect of grammaticality over central and parietal regions (all ps<.003), no differences due to grammaticality were visible in the Iso group (all ps>.08). The analysis of the descending part revealed only a main effect of grammaticality (F(1,24) = 9.42, p = .005), with a larger negativity for ungrammatical tones than for grammatical tones. The main effect of group and the interactions involving group were not significant (ps>.18). Note that we also performed a statistical analysis in the N1 time window (85–125 ms), but neither the main effect of grammaticality (p>.42) nor the interaction between grammaticality and group (p>.97) were significant.

Bottom Line: Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation.Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups.These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Auditory Cognition and Psychoacoustics Team, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5292, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 1028, University Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation. Our study combined behavioral and event-related potential measurements. Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups. By contrast, analyses of event-related potentials showed a larger P300 component and an earlier N2 component for the strongly metrical group during the exposure phase and the test phase, respectively. These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus