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Oligonucleotide aptamers: new tools for targeted cancer therapy.

Sun H, Zhu X, Lu PY, Rosato RR, Tan W, Zu Y - Mol Ther Nucleic Acids (2014)

Bottom Line: Similar to antibodies, aptamers interact with their targets by recognizing a specific three-dimensional structure and are thus termed "chemical antibodies." In contrast to protein antibodies, aptamers offer unique chemical and biological characteristics based on their oligonucleotide properties.Hence, they are more suitable for the development of novel clinical applications.Additionally, we will describe several approaches for the use of aptamers in targeted therapeutics, including aptamer-drug conjugation, aptamer-nanoparticle conjugation, aptamer-mediated targeted gene therapy, aptamer-mediated immunotherapy, and aptamer-mediated biotherapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

ABSTRACT
Aptamers are a class of small nucleic acid ligands that are composed of RNA or single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides and have high specificity and affinity for their targets. Similar to antibodies, aptamers interact with their targets by recognizing a specific three-dimensional structure and are thus termed "chemical antibodies." In contrast to protein antibodies, aptamers offer unique chemical and biological characteristics based on their oligonucleotide properties. Hence, they are more suitable for the development of novel clinical applications. Aptamer technology has been widely investigated in various biomedical fields for biomarker discovery, in vitro diagnosis, in vivo imaging, and targeted therapy. This review will discuss the potential applications of aptamer technology as a new tool for targeted cancer therapy with emphasis on the development of aptamers that are able to specifically target cell surface biomarkers. Additionally, we will describe several approaches for the use of aptamers in targeted therapeutics, including aptamer-drug conjugation, aptamer-nanoparticle conjugation, aptamer-mediated targeted gene therapy, aptamer-mediated immunotherapy, and aptamer-mediated biotherapy.

No MeSH data available.


Summary of various aptamer applications.
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fig7: Summary of various aptamer applications.

Mentions: Antibody-based targeted therapeutics provide high target specificity and affinity. However, their potential for immunogenicity is of a great concern, as is their high production cost, both of which have limited their clinical applicability. As discussed in this review, when compared to protein antibodies, oligonucleotide aptamers offer many advantages, including simple chemical synthesis, virtual nonimmunogenicity, smaller size, faster tissue penetration, ease of modification with different functional moieties, low cost of production, and high biological stability. Therefore, aptamers have become a promising new class of molecular ligands that could replace or supplement protein antibodies. In summary, aptamer technology has a strong market value and may be applied in various biomedical fields, including in vitro cancer cell detection, in vivo tumor imaging, and targeted cancer therapy (Figure 7).


Oligonucleotide aptamers: new tools for targeted cancer therapy.

Sun H, Zhu X, Lu PY, Rosato RR, Tan W, Zu Y - Mol Ther Nucleic Acids (2014)

Summary of various aptamer applications.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221593&req=5

fig7: Summary of various aptamer applications.
Mentions: Antibody-based targeted therapeutics provide high target specificity and affinity. However, their potential for immunogenicity is of a great concern, as is their high production cost, both of which have limited their clinical applicability. As discussed in this review, when compared to protein antibodies, oligonucleotide aptamers offer many advantages, including simple chemical synthesis, virtual nonimmunogenicity, smaller size, faster tissue penetration, ease of modification with different functional moieties, low cost of production, and high biological stability. Therefore, aptamers have become a promising new class of molecular ligands that could replace or supplement protein antibodies. In summary, aptamer technology has a strong market value and may be applied in various biomedical fields, including in vitro cancer cell detection, in vivo tumor imaging, and targeted cancer therapy (Figure 7).

Bottom Line: Similar to antibodies, aptamers interact with their targets by recognizing a specific three-dimensional structure and are thus termed "chemical antibodies." In contrast to protein antibodies, aptamers offer unique chemical and biological characteristics based on their oligonucleotide properties.Hence, they are more suitable for the development of novel clinical applications.Additionally, we will describe several approaches for the use of aptamers in targeted therapeutics, including aptamer-drug conjugation, aptamer-nanoparticle conjugation, aptamer-mediated targeted gene therapy, aptamer-mediated immunotherapy, and aptamer-mediated biotherapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

ABSTRACT
Aptamers are a class of small nucleic acid ligands that are composed of RNA or single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides and have high specificity and affinity for their targets. Similar to antibodies, aptamers interact with their targets by recognizing a specific three-dimensional structure and are thus termed "chemical antibodies." In contrast to protein antibodies, aptamers offer unique chemical and biological characteristics based on their oligonucleotide properties. Hence, they are more suitable for the development of novel clinical applications. Aptamer technology has been widely investigated in various biomedical fields for biomarker discovery, in vitro diagnosis, in vivo imaging, and targeted therapy. This review will discuss the potential applications of aptamer technology as a new tool for targeted cancer therapy with emphasis on the development of aptamers that are able to specifically target cell surface biomarkers. Additionally, we will describe several approaches for the use of aptamers in targeted therapeutics, including aptamer-drug conjugation, aptamer-nanoparticle conjugation, aptamer-mediated targeted gene therapy, aptamer-mediated immunotherapy, and aptamer-mediated biotherapy.

No MeSH data available.