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Sleep is associated with offline improvement of motor sequence skill in children.

Sugawara SK, Tanaka S, Tanaka D, Seki A, Uchiyama HT, Okazaki S, Koeda T, Sadato N - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Here, we tested whether sleep is associated with offline performance improvement in children.In both 9- and 11-year-old children, skill performance was significantly improved during the first retest session relative to the end of training on the previous day, confirming the offline improvement in performance.There was a significant correlation between the degree of improvement and sleep duration the night after training, suggesting that in children, as in adults, sleep is associated with offline skill enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cerebral Integration, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
In adults, sleep is necessary for the offline improvement of certain skills, such as sequential finger tapping, but whether children show a similar effect is still debatable. Here, we tested whether sleep is associated with offline performance improvement in children. Nine- and 11-year-old children trained on an explicit sequential finger tapping task. On the night following training, their parents observed and recorded the duration of each child's sleep. The following day, all children performed a surprise retest session on the previously trained sequence. In both 9- and 11-year-old children, skill performance was significantly improved during the first retest session relative to the end of training on the previous day, confirming the offline improvement in performance. There was a significant correlation between the degree of improvement and sleep duration the night after training, suggesting that in children, as in adults, sleep is associated with offline skill enhancement.

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Motor sequence performance and improvement between days in the two different age groups.(A) Participants in both groups showed significant offline improvement, measured by the performance improvement between the last three trials during training on day 1 and the first three trials during retest on day 2 (p values<0.001). The black circles represent the mean performance during each trial in the 9-year-old group, and the open circles represent the mean performance in the 11-year-old group. (B) In total, performance in the 11-year-old children was significantly better than that in the 9-year-old children (p<0.05). However, the degree of offline improvement did not differ between the age groups (two-tailed unpaired t-test; p = 0.51). The black bar represents the 9-year-old group and the white bar represents the 11-year-old group. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM). ***p<0.001; **p<0.01 (repeated-measures ANOVA).
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pone-0111635-g001: Motor sequence performance and improvement between days in the two different age groups.(A) Participants in both groups showed significant offline improvement, measured by the performance improvement between the last three trials during training on day 1 and the first three trials during retest on day 2 (p values<0.001). The black circles represent the mean performance during each trial in the 9-year-old group, and the open circles represent the mean performance in the 11-year-old group. (B) In total, performance in the 11-year-old children was significantly better than that in the 9-year-old children (p<0.05). However, the degree of offline improvement did not differ between the age groups (two-tailed unpaired t-test; p = 0.51). The black bar represents the 9-year-old group and the white bar represents the 11-year-old group. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM). ***p<0.001; **p<0.01 (repeated-measures ANOVA).

Mentions: To test whether there were differences between baseline performance and performance at the end of training between the groups, we conducted a 2 (group; 9- vs. 11-year old)×2 (learning; baseline vs. end of training) ANOVA. There was no significant interaction (ANOVA, F2,22 = 1.10, p = 0.31; Fig. 1A), but the main effects of group (F1,22 = 5.25, p<0.05) and learning (F1,22 = 71.13, p<0.001) were significant.


Sleep is associated with offline improvement of motor sequence skill in children.

Sugawara SK, Tanaka S, Tanaka D, Seki A, Uchiyama HT, Okazaki S, Koeda T, Sadato N - PLoS ONE (2014)

Motor sequence performance and improvement between days in the two different age groups.(A) Participants in both groups showed significant offline improvement, measured by the performance improvement between the last three trials during training on day 1 and the first three trials during retest on day 2 (p values<0.001). The black circles represent the mean performance during each trial in the 9-year-old group, and the open circles represent the mean performance in the 11-year-old group. (B) In total, performance in the 11-year-old children was significantly better than that in the 9-year-old children (p<0.05). However, the degree of offline improvement did not differ between the age groups (two-tailed unpaired t-test; p = 0.51). The black bar represents the 9-year-old group and the white bar represents the 11-year-old group. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM). ***p<0.001; **p<0.01 (repeated-measures ANOVA).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221057&req=5

pone-0111635-g001: Motor sequence performance and improvement between days in the two different age groups.(A) Participants in both groups showed significant offline improvement, measured by the performance improvement between the last three trials during training on day 1 and the first three trials during retest on day 2 (p values<0.001). The black circles represent the mean performance during each trial in the 9-year-old group, and the open circles represent the mean performance in the 11-year-old group. (B) In total, performance in the 11-year-old children was significantly better than that in the 9-year-old children (p<0.05). However, the degree of offline improvement did not differ between the age groups (two-tailed unpaired t-test; p = 0.51). The black bar represents the 9-year-old group and the white bar represents the 11-year-old group. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM). ***p<0.001; **p<0.01 (repeated-measures ANOVA).
Mentions: To test whether there were differences between baseline performance and performance at the end of training between the groups, we conducted a 2 (group; 9- vs. 11-year old)×2 (learning; baseline vs. end of training) ANOVA. There was no significant interaction (ANOVA, F2,22 = 1.10, p = 0.31; Fig. 1A), but the main effects of group (F1,22 = 5.25, p<0.05) and learning (F1,22 = 71.13, p<0.001) were significant.

Bottom Line: Here, we tested whether sleep is associated with offline performance improvement in children.In both 9- and 11-year-old children, skill performance was significantly improved during the first retest session relative to the end of training on the previous day, confirming the offline improvement in performance.There was a significant correlation between the degree of improvement and sleep duration the night after training, suggesting that in children, as in adults, sleep is associated with offline skill enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cerebral Integration, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
In adults, sleep is necessary for the offline improvement of certain skills, such as sequential finger tapping, but whether children show a similar effect is still debatable. Here, we tested whether sleep is associated with offline performance improvement in children. Nine- and 11-year-old children trained on an explicit sequential finger tapping task. On the night following training, their parents observed and recorded the duration of each child's sleep. The following day, all children performed a surprise retest session on the previously trained sequence. In both 9- and 11-year-old children, skill performance was significantly improved during the first retest session relative to the end of training on the previous day, confirming the offline improvement in performance. There was a significant correlation between the degree of improvement and sleep duration the night after training, suggesting that in children, as in adults, sleep is associated with offline skill enhancement.

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