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A direct brain-to-brain interface in humans.

Rao RP, Stocco A, Bryan M, Sarma D, Youngquist TM, Wu J, Prat CS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects.This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS.Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the "sender") and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the "receiver"). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the sender's signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

TMS Set-Up.During the experiment, the Receiver was accommodated on a BrainSight chair, with the back of the head resting against a neckrest (A) and kept in place by an adjustable arm with padded forehead prongs (B). A 90 mm circular TMS coil (C) was kept in place by an articulated arm (D). During the experiment, the receiver wore noise-cancellation earphones (not shown) while listening to a selection of music or to an audiobook of his/her own choice.
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pone-0111332-g005: TMS Set-Up.During the experiment, the Receiver was accommodated on a BrainSight chair, with the back of the head resting against a neckrest (A) and kept in place by an adjustable arm with padded forehead prongs (B). A 90 mm circular TMS coil (C) was kept in place by an articulated arm (D). During the experiment, the receiver wore noise-cancellation earphones (not shown) while listening to a selection of music or to an audiobook of his/her own choice.

Mentions: During the experimental session, the returning participant wore the same cap while sitting on an anatomical chair designed for TMS (BrainSight, Rogue Resolutions, Montreal, CA). The participant’s head was accommodated on a neck rest (Figure 5A) and kept in position by an adjustable arm equipped with padded forehead prongs (Figure 5B). The participant’s left arm was accommodated on the chair’s armrest. The chair’s right armrest was removed, and the participants’ right arm was placed on an adjustable table, so that the four non-opposable fingers of the right hand rested on a wireless touchpad (Logitech T650, Morges, Switzerland) connected to the Receiver’s computer. The Sender’s intention to move the hand caused the TMS machine to fire a single pulse at the intensity that was established during the parameter estimation session, Note that because the TMS pulse causes an upward jerk of the hand, the touchpad is actually pressed during the downward part of the moment, when the hand falls back in position. Before the experiment, the TMS coil (Figure 5C) was mounted on a dual rod articulated arm (Manfrotto, Cassola, Italy: Figure 5D) connected to the left swinging arm of the anatomical chair.


A direct brain-to-brain interface in humans.

Rao RP, Stocco A, Bryan M, Sarma D, Youngquist TM, Wu J, Prat CS - PLoS ONE (2014)

TMS Set-Up.During the experiment, the Receiver was accommodated on a BrainSight chair, with the back of the head resting against a neckrest (A) and kept in place by an adjustable arm with padded forehead prongs (B). A 90 mm circular TMS coil (C) was kept in place by an articulated arm (D). During the experiment, the receiver wore noise-cancellation earphones (not shown) while listening to a selection of music or to an audiobook of his/her own choice.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4221017&req=5

pone-0111332-g005: TMS Set-Up.During the experiment, the Receiver was accommodated on a BrainSight chair, with the back of the head resting against a neckrest (A) and kept in place by an adjustable arm with padded forehead prongs (B). A 90 mm circular TMS coil (C) was kept in place by an articulated arm (D). During the experiment, the receiver wore noise-cancellation earphones (not shown) while listening to a selection of music or to an audiobook of his/her own choice.
Mentions: During the experimental session, the returning participant wore the same cap while sitting on an anatomical chair designed for TMS (BrainSight, Rogue Resolutions, Montreal, CA). The participant’s head was accommodated on a neck rest (Figure 5A) and kept in position by an adjustable arm equipped with padded forehead prongs (Figure 5B). The participant’s left arm was accommodated on the chair’s armrest. The chair’s right armrest was removed, and the participants’ right arm was placed on an adjustable table, so that the four non-opposable fingers of the right hand rested on a wireless touchpad (Logitech T650, Morges, Switzerland) connected to the Receiver’s computer. The Sender’s intention to move the hand caused the TMS machine to fire a single pulse at the intensity that was established during the parameter estimation session, Note that because the TMS pulse causes an upward jerk of the hand, the touchpad is actually pressed during the downward part of the moment, when the hand falls back in position. Before the experiment, the TMS coil (Figure 5C) was mounted on a dual rod articulated arm (Manfrotto, Cassola, Italy: Figure 5D) connected to the left swinging arm of the anatomical chair.

Bottom Line: We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects.This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS.Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the "sender") and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the "receiver"). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the sender's signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus