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Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

Humphries DL, Behrman JR, Crookston BT, Dearden KA, Schott W, Penny ME, Young Lives Determinants and Consequences of Child Growth Project Te - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures.Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles.Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of households were proportionately greater than increases in total food expenditures, and proportionately less than overall expenditures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Disease, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs.

Objective: To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases.

Methods: The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures.

Results: Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households.

Conclusions: Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of households were proportionately greater than increases in total food expenditures, and proportionately less than overall expenditures.

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(a) Percent total expenditures devoted to food in 2002, 2006 and 2009, and (b) percent food expenditures devoted to ASF in 2002, 2006 and 2009, by 2002 quintiles of total expenditures.(a) In 2002 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles in that year (p<0.05) except for the first and second quintiles, and the second and third. In 2006 each quintile is significantly different from most other quintiles in that year (p<0.05). In 2009 the lowest quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles, and the second, third and fourth quintiles are significantly different from the highest quintile (p<0.05). All quintiles are based on 2002 total expenditures. (b) In 2002 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles in that year except for the third and fourth quintiles, and the fourth and highest quintiles (p<0.05). In 2006 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles for that year except for the second and third quintiles. In 2009 most quintiles are significantly different from all other quintiles in that year (p<0.05). All quintiles are based on 2002 total expenditures.
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pone-0110961-g002: (a) Percent total expenditures devoted to food in 2002, 2006 and 2009, and (b) percent food expenditures devoted to ASF in 2002, 2006 and 2009, by 2002 quintiles of total expenditures.(a) In 2002 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles in that year (p<0.05) except for the first and second quintiles, and the second and third. In 2006 each quintile is significantly different from most other quintiles in that year (p<0.05). In 2009 the lowest quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles, and the second, third and fourth quintiles are significantly different from the highest quintile (p<0.05). All quintiles are based on 2002 total expenditures. (b) In 2002 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles in that year except for the third and fourth quintiles, and the fourth and highest quintiles (p<0.05). In 2006 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles for that year except for the second and third quintiles. In 2009 most quintiles are significantly different from all other quintiles in that year (p<0.05). All quintiles are based on 2002 total expenditures.

Mentions: Households in the lower quintiles of total expenditures spent a higher percentage on food (Figure 2a). In 2002, these proportions for all quintiles were different (p<0.05) except for the lowest and second quintiles, and the second and third quintiles. In 2009 all quintiles were significantly different from the highest, and the lowest quintile was also significantly different from the fourth quintile (p<0.05). Households from the lower quintiles of total expenditures devoted smaller percentages of their overall food expenditures to ASFs (Figure 2b). In 2002 all quintiles were significantly different except for the third and fourth quintiles and the fourth and highest quintiles. In 2009 all were significantly different except the second and third, second and fourth, and the third and fourth quintiles (p<0.05).


Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

Humphries DL, Behrman JR, Crookston BT, Dearden KA, Schott W, Penny ME, Young Lives Determinants and Consequences of Child Growth Project Te - PLoS ONE (2014)

(a) Percent total expenditures devoted to food in 2002, 2006 and 2009, and (b) percent food expenditures devoted to ASF in 2002, 2006 and 2009, by 2002 quintiles of total expenditures.(a) In 2002 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles in that year (p<0.05) except for the first and second quintiles, and the second and third. In 2006 each quintile is significantly different from most other quintiles in that year (p<0.05). In 2009 the lowest quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles, and the second, third and fourth quintiles are significantly different from the highest quintile (p<0.05). All quintiles are based on 2002 total expenditures. (b) In 2002 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles in that year except for the third and fourth quintiles, and the fourth and highest quintiles (p<0.05). In 2006 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles for that year except for the second and third quintiles. In 2009 most quintiles are significantly different from all other quintiles in that year (p<0.05). All quintiles are based on 2002 total expenditures.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4220962&req=5

pone-0110961-g002: (a) Percent total expenditures devoted to food in 2002, 2006 and 2009, and (b) percent food expenditures devoted to ASF in 2002, 2006 and 2009, by 2002 quintiles of total expenditures.(a) In 2002 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles in that year (p<0.05) except for the first and second quintiles, and the second and third. In 2006 each quintile is significantly different from most other quintiles in that year (p<0.05). In 2009 the lowest quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles, and the second, third and fourth quintiles are significantly different from the highest quintile (p<0.05). All quintiles are based on 2002 total expenditures. (b) In 2002 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles in that year except for the third and fourth quintiles, and the fourth and highest quintiles (p<0.05). In 2006 each quintile is significantly different from all other quintiles for that year except for the second and third quintiles. In 2009 most quintiles are significantly different from all other quintiles in that year (p<0.05). All quintiles are based on 2002 total expenditures.
Mentions: Households in the lower quintiles of total expenditures spent a higher percentage on food (Figure 2a). In 2002, these proportions for all quintiles were different (p<0.05) except for the lowest and second quintiles, and the second and third quintiles. In 2009 all quintiles were significantly different from the highest, and the lowest quintile was also significantly different from the fourth quintile (p<0.05). Households from the lower quintiles of total expenditures devoted smaller percentages of their overall food expenditures to ASFs (Figure 2b). In 2002 all quintiles were significantly different except for the third and fourth quintiles and the fourth and highest quintiles. In 2009 all were significantly different except the second and third, second and fourth, and the third and fourth quintiles (p<0.05).

Bottom Line: Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures.Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles.Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of households were proportionately greater than increases in total food expenditures, and proportionately less than overall expenditures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Disease, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs.

Objective: To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases.

Methods: The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures.

Results: Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households.

Conclusions: Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of households were proportionately greater than increases in total food expenditures, and proportionately less than overall expenditures.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus