Limits...
Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

Papiorek S, Junker RR, Lunau K - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging.However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found.Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Sensory Ecology, Department Biology, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Epidermal cell shape, gloss and colour parameters of bee- and bird-pollinated flower parts.Means and standard errors of A) epidermal cell shape, B) floral gloss, colour contrast to the background in C) the colour hexagon model and D) in the receptor-noise limited model,(E) bee-subjective spectral purity according to the colour hexagon model, F) green contrast, G) chroma, and H) intensity for visually-active and for robbing-sensitive flower parts of bee- and bird-pollinated flowers. Asterisks above the bold line indicate differences according to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance levels of ** for p<0.01 and *** for p<0.001. Different letters below the bold line denote significant differences according to pairwise comparisons using Tukey HSD.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219824&req=5

pone-0112013-g002: Epidermal cell shape, gloss and colour parameters of bee- and bird-pollinated flower parts.Means and standard errors of A) epidermal cell shape, B) floral gloss, colour contrast to the background in C) the colour hexagon model and D) in the receptor-noise limited model,(E) bee-subjective spectral purity according to the colour hexagon model, F) green contrast, G) chroma, and H) intensity for visually-active and for robbing-sensitive flower parts of bee- and bird-pollinated flowers. Asterisks above the bold line indicate differences according to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance levels of ** for p<0.01 and *** for p<0.001. Different letters below the bold line denote significant differences according to pairwise comparisons using Tukey HSD.

Mentions: Differences between cell shape, floral gloss, and colour parameters in relation to pollinators were found; main pollinator (i.e. bee or bird) as well as flower part (i.e. visually-active or robbing-sensitive parts) had a significant effect on shape, floral gloss as well as all investigated colour parameters (Figure 2).


Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

Papiorek S, Junker RR, Lunau K - PLoS ONE (2014)

Epidermal cell shape, gloss and colour parameters of bee- and bird-pollinated flower parts.Means and standard errors of A) epidermal cell shape, B) floral gloss, colour contrast to the background in C) the colour hexagon model and D) in the receptor-noise limited model,(E) bee-subjective spectral purity according to the colour hexagon model, F) green contrast, G) chroma, and H) intensity for visually-active and for robbing-sensitive flower parts of bee- and bird-pollinated flowers. Asterisks above the bold line indicate differences according to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance levels of ** for p<0.01 and *** for p<0.001. Different letters below the bold line denote significant differences according to pairwise comparisons using Tukey HSD.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219824&req=5

pone-0112013-g002: Epidermal cell shape, gloss and colour parameters of bee- and bird-pollinated flower parts.Means and standard errors of A) epidermal cell shape, B) floral gloss, colour contrast to the background in C) the colour hexagon model and D) in the receptor-noise limited model,(E) bee-subjective spectral purity according to the colour hexagon model, F) green contrast, G) chroma, and H) intensity for visually-active and for robbing-sensitive flower parts of bee- and bird-pollinated flowers. Asterisks above the bold line indicate differences according to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance levels of ** for p<0.01 and *** for p<0.001. Different letters below the bold line denote significant differences according to pairwise comparisons using Tukey HSD.
Mentions: Differences between cell shape, floral gloss, and colour parameters in relation to pollinators were found; main pollinator (i.e. bee or bird) as well as flower part (i.e. visually-active or robbing-sensitive parts) had a significant effect on shape, floral gloss as well as all investigated colour parameters (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging.However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found.Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Sensory Ecology, Department Biology, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus