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Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-tracking technology.

Niu L, Zhang Y, Meng L, Xiao Y, Wong KK, Abbott D, Zheng H, Zheng R, Qian M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The subjects (n = 145) with (MAX)IMT smaller than 1.0 mm matched the IMT criteria for non-atherosclerosis and were named as NA-subjects.Spearman's rho correlation analysis of the whole group and the NA-subjects both showed that (MAX)IMT correlated positively with (RF)QIMT, α, β, and PWVβ, and negatively with DC and CC (p<0.01).The analysis of covariance of NA-subjects showed significant differences between subjects with and without risk factors, and also showed significant differences between the 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple' groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Atherosclerosis is a chronic and systemic disease and its developmental process involves the synergism of multiple risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking. The diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis is essential for strategic guidance towards suitable treatments and efficient prevention against acute cardiovascular events. This study employed ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) tracking technology to characterize human carotid arteries in vivo in terms of intima-media thickness (IMT) and artery stiffness, and evaluated the statistical correlation between carotid IMT and stiffness, and the number of risk factors for atherosclerosis.

Methods: A total of 160 asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Ultrasound RF-tracking technology was employed to acquire carotid IMT and stiffness parameters: maximum IMT ((MAX)IMT), RF Quality IMT ((RF)QIMT), distensibility coefficient (DC), compliance coefficient (CC), αindex, β index and local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ). The subjects were categorized in four groups in terms of the number of risk factors: 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple', and statistical analyses of carotid IMT and stiffness parameters were performed between these different groups.

Results: The subjects (n = 145) with (MAX)IMT smaller than 1.0 mm matched the IMT criteria for non-atherosclerosis and were named as NA-subjects. Spearman's rho correlation analysis of the whole group and the NA-subjects both showed that (MAX)IMT correlated positively with (RF)QIMT, α, β, and PWVβ, and negatively with DC and CC (p<0.01). The analysis of covariance of NA-subjects showed significant differences between subjects with and without risk factors, and also showed significant differences between the 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple' groups.

Conclusions: The carotid IMT and stiffness parameters obtained by the ultrasound RF-tracking technology were demonstrated to possess significant statistical correlation with the number of risk factors from 160 subjects, and these anatomical and mechanical parameters may potentially be used together with the IMT criteria to support subclinical atherosclerosis diagnosis.

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The illustration for the ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-tracking technology.(a) The diagram for the RF-QIMT technology. A green box is chosen to define the region of interest (ROI). On the right it shows a typical RF signal that corresponds to the red rectangle in the ROI, with the RF raw signal denoted in blue, and the RF envelop denoted in red. The ‘Intima Peak’, ‘Media Foot’, and ‘Adventitia Peak’ are identified in the RF envelop in order to determine the interfaces between the intima, the media, and the adventitia in the artery. The green line inside the ROI denotes the intima and the orange line denotes the adventitia. The intima-media thickness (IMT) can therefore be obtained. (b) The diagram for the RF-QAS technology. In the same ROI, the diameter waveform is tracked as a function of time using a complex cross-correlation model, and the cardiac cycle is acquired based on the waveform periodicity. Combining with the brachial blood pressure information (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure), five arterial stiffness coefficients can be calculated, including distensibility coefficient (), compliance coefficient (),  index,  index and local pulse wave velocity ().
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pone-0111926-g001: The illustration for the ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-tracking technology.(a) The diagram for the RF-QIMT technology. A green box is chosen to define the region of interest (ROI). On the right it shows a typical RF signal that corresponds to the red rectangle in the ROI, with the RF raw signal denoted in blue, and the RF envelop denoted in red. The ‘Intima Peak’, ‘Media Foot’, and ‘Adventitia Peak’ are identified in the RF envelop in order to determine the interfaces between the intima, the media, and the adventitia in the artery. The green line inside the ROI denotes the intima and the orange line denotes the adventitia. The intima-media thickness (IMT) can therefore be obtained. (b) The diagram for the RF-QAS technology. In the same ROI, the diameter waveform is tracked as a function of time using a complex cross-correlation model, and the cardiac cycle is acquired based on the waveform periodicity. Combining with the brachial blood pressure information (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure), five arterial stiffness coefficients can be calculated, including distensibility coefficient (), compliance coefficient (), index, index and local pulse wave velocity ().

Mentions: All measurements were taken in the supine position with head elevation of ≤45° and a side tilt of 30° to the right. Note that B-mode examinations were undertaken on the distal wall of the common carotid artery (CCA) on the optimal image and IMT were obtained. The CCA, carotid bulb and portions of the internal and external carotid arteries on the left side were scanned. The scan encompassed the region between 30 mm proximal to the beginning of the dilation of the bifurcation bulb and 15 mm distal to the CCA flow divider. We defined the maximum IMT (MAXIMT) as the thickest IMT in the scanned regions. The distal 10 mm of the CCA just proximal to the bulb was measured by the ultrasound RF-tracking technology. Here, RFQIMT was defined as IMT measured by RF-QIMT technology, as shown in Fig. 1 (a).


Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-tracking technology.

Niu L, Zhang Y, Meng L, Xiao Y, Wong KK, Abbott D, Zheng H, Zheng R, Qian M - PLoS ONE (2014)

The illustration for the ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-tracking technology.(a) The diagram for the RF-QIMT technology. A green box is chosen to define the region of interest (ROI). On the right it shows a typical RF signal that corresponds to the red rectangle in the ROI, with the RF raw signal denoted in blue, and the RF envelop denoted in red. The ‘Intima Peak’, ‘Media Foot’, and ‘Adventitia Peak’ are identified in the RF envelop in order to determine the interfaces between the intima, the media, and the adventitia in the artery. The green line inside the ROI denotes the intima and the orange line denotes the adventitia. The intima-media thickness (IMT) can therefore be obtained. (b) The diagram for the RF-QAS technology. In the same ROI, the diameter waveform is tracked as a function of time using a complex cross-correlation model, and the cardiac cycle is acquired based on the waveform periodicity. Combining with the brachial blood pressure information (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure), five arterial stiffness coefficients can be calculated, including distensibility coefficient (), compliance coefficient (),  index,  index and local pulse wave velocity ().
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219816&req=5

pone-0111926-g001: The illustration for the ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-tracking technology.(a) The diagram for the RF-QIMT technology. A green box is chosen to define the region of interest (ROI). On the right it shows a typical RF signal that corresponds to the red rectangle in the ROI, with the RF raw signal denoted in blue, and the RF envelop denoted in red. The ‘Intima Peak’, ‘Media Foot’, and ‘Adventitia Peak’ are identified in the RF envelop in order to determine the interfaces between the intima, the media, and the adventitia in the artery. The green line inside the ROI denotes the intima and the orange line denotes the adventitia. The intima-media thickness (IMT) can therefore be obtained. (b) The diagram for the RF-QAS technology. In the same ROI, the diameter waveform is tracked as a function of time using a complex cross-correlation model, and the cardiac cycle is acquired based on the waveform periodicity. Combining with the brachial blood pressure information (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure), five arterial stiffness coefficients can be calculated, including distensibility coefficient (), compliance coefficient (), index, index and local pulse wave velocity ().
Mentions: All measurements were taken in the supine position with head elevation of ≤45° and a side tilt of 30° to the right. Note that B-mode examinations were undertaken on the distal wall of the common carotid artery (CCA) on the optimal image and IMT were obtained. The CCA, carotid bulb and portions of the internal and external carotid arteries on the left side were scanned. The scan encompassed the region between 30 mm proximal to the beginning of the dilation of the bifurcation bulb and 15 mm distal to the CCA flow divider. We defined the maximum IMT (MAXIMT) as the thickest IMT in the scanned regions. The distal 10 mm of the CCA just proximal to the bulb was measured by the ultrasound RF-tracking technology. Here, RFQIMT was defined as IMT measured by RF-QIMT technology, as shown in Fig. 1 (a).

Bottom Line: The subjects (n = 145) with (MAX)IMT smaller than 1.0 mm matched the IMT criteria for non-atherosclerosis and were named as NA-subjects.Spearman's rho correlation analysis of the whole group and the NA-subjects both showed that (MAX)IMT correlated positively with (RF)QIMT, α, β, and PWVβ, and negatively with DC and CC (p<0.01).The analysis of covariance of NA-subjects showed significant differences between subjects with and without risk factors, and also showed significant differences between the 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple' groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Atherosclerosis is a chronic and systemic disease and its developmental process involves the synergism of multiple risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking. The diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis is essential for strategic guidance towards suitable treatments and efficient prevention against acute cardiovascular events. This study employed ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) tracking technology to characterize human carotid arteries in vivo in terms of intima-media thickness (IMT) and artery stiffness, and evaluated the statistical correlation between carotid IMT and stiffness, and the number of risk factors for atherosclerosis.

Methods: A total of 160 asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Ultrasound RF-tracking technology was employed to acquire carotid IMT and stiffness parameters: maximum IMT ((MAX)IMT), RF Quality IMT ((RF)QIMT), distensibility coefficient (DC), compliance coefficient (CC), αindex, β index and local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ). The subjects were categorized in four groups in terms of the number of risk factors: 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple', and statistical analyses of carotid IMT and stiffness parameters were performed between these different groups.

Results: The subjects (n = 145) with (MAX)IMT smaller than 1.0 mm matched the IMT criteria for non-atherosclerosis and were named as NA-subjects. Spearman's rho correlation analysis of the whole group and the NA-subjects both showed that (MAX)IMT correlated positively with (RF)QIMT, α, β, and PWVβ, and negatively with DC and CC (p<0.01). The analysis of covariance of NA-subjects showed significant differences between subjects with and without risk factors, and also showed significant differences between the 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple' groups.

Conclusions: The carotid IMT and stiffness parameters obtained by the ultrasound RF-tracking technology were demonstrated to possess significant statistical correlation with the number of risk factors from 160 subjects, and these anatomical and mechanical parameters may potentially be used together with the IMT criteria to support subclinical atherosclerosis diagnosis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus