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Biodegradation of microcystins during gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration.

Kohler E, Villiger J, Posch T, Derlon N, Shabarova T, Morgenroth E, Pernthaler J, Blom JF - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Presence of live or destroyed cyanobacterial cells in the feed water decreased the permeate flux in the Microcystis treatments considerably.At the same time, the microbial biofilms on the filter membranes could successfully reduce the amount of microcystins in the filtrate below the critical threshold concentration of 1 µg L(-1) MC for human consumption in three out of four replicates after 15 days.We found pronounced differences in the composition of bacterial communities of the biofilms on the filter membranes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Limnological Station, Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zurich, Kilchberg, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration systems require little maintenance: they operate without electricity at ultra-low pressure in dead-end mode and without control of the biofilm formation. These systems are already in use for water purification in some regions of the world where adequate treatment and distribution of drinking water is not readily available. However, many water bodies worldwide exhibit harmful blooms of cyanobacteria that severely lower the water quality due to the production of toxic microcystins (MCs). We studied the performance of a GDM system during an artificial Microcystis aeruginosa bloom in lake water and its simulated collapse (i.e., the massive release of microcystins) over a period of 21 days. Presence of live or destroyed cyanobacterial cells in the feed water decreased the permeate flux in the Microcystis treatments considerably. At the same time, the microbial biofilms on the filter membranes could successfully reduce the amount of microcystins in the filtrate below the critical threshold concentration of 1 µg L(-1) MC for human consumption in three out of four replicates after 15 days. We found pronounced differences in the composition of bacterial communities of the biofilms on the filter membranes. Bacterial genera that could be related to microcystin degradation substantially enriched in the biofilms amended with microcystin-containing cyanobacteria. In addition to bacteria previously characterized as microcystin degraders, members of other bacterial clades potentially involved in MC degradation could be identified.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Evolution of the permeate flux.The flux is shown in L m−2 h−1 for the filtration of differently treated feed water sources (LMA, DMA, and CON according to Figure 1). The two replicates per system are shown as circles and triangles, and are connected by the mean.
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pone-0111794-g002: Evolution of the permeate flux.The flux is shown in L m−2 h−1 for the filtration of differently treated feed water sources (LMA, DMA, and CON according to Figure 1). The two replicates per system are shown as circles and triangles, and are connected by the mean.

Mentions: Flux stabilization was observed approximately after eight to ten days of the experiment in all three treatments albeit great differences between the control and both Microcystis treatments (Figure 2). A mean flux of 4.7 L m−2 h−1 was measured after 12 days in the CON treatment. In one of the two replicates, the flux stayed constant until the end of the experiment. In the second replicate, the flux increased slowly to 6.9 L m−2 h−1 on day 21. Accordingly, the mean thickness (as assessed by OTC measurements) of the biofilms of both control replicates at the end of the experiment were slightly different. The biofilm of the first replicate had a thickness of about 125 (±23) µm; the biofilm of the second replicate was 96 (±17) µm thick. The second replicate was less heterogeneous than the first replicate, but both exhibited low relative roughness values of 0.49 and 0.35, respectively. The permeate flux in both Microcystis treatments showed a similar trend. Stabilization could be observed at a mean flux of 1.6 L m−2 h−1 in the LMA and of 2.0 L m−2 h−1 in the DMA treatment. In both treatments, mean permeate flux decreased further to 1.0 L m−2 h−1 and 1.36 L m−2 h−1, as measured at the end of the experiment. Thus, the mean flux in the Microcystis replicates was about 80% lower than in the CON treatment. Biofilms in the DMA treatment were about six to seven times thicker as in the CON treatment with values of 625 (±33) µm and 796 (±29) µm for both replicates. Unfortunately, a quantification of the biofilm thickness in the LMA treatment could not be carried out.


Biodegradation of microcystins during gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration.

Kohler E, Villiger J, Posch T, Derlon N, Shabarova T, Morgenroth E, Pernthaler J, Blom JF - PLoS ONE (2014)

Evolution of the permeate flux.The flux is shown in L m−2 h−1 for the filtration of differently treated feed water sources (LMA, DMA, and CON according to Figure 1). The two replicates per system are shown as circles and triangles, and are connected by the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219780&req=5

pone-0111794-g002: Evolution of the permeate flux.The flux is shown in L m−2 h−1 for the filtration of differently treated feed water sources (LMA, DMA, and CON according to Figure 1). The two replicates per system are shown as circles and triangles, and are connected by the mean.
Mentions: Flux stabilization was observed approximately after eight to ten days of the experiment in all three treatments albeit great differences between the control and both Microcystis treatments (Figure 2). A mean flux of 4.7 L m−2 h−1 was measured after 12 days in the CON treatment. In one of the two replicates, the flux stayed constant until the end of the experiment. In the second replicate, the flux increased slowly to 6.9 L m−2 h−1 on day 21. Accordingly, the mean thickness (as assessed by OTC measurements) of the biofilms of both control replicates at the end of the experiment were slightly different. The biofilm of the first replicate had a thickness of about 125 (±23) µm; the biofilm of the second replicate was 96 (±17) µm thick. The second replicate was less heterogeneous than the first replicate, but both exhibited low relative roughness values of 0.49 and 0.35, respectively. The permeate flux in both Microcystis treatments showed a similar trend. Stabilization could be observed at a mean flux of 1.6 L m−2 h−1 in the LMA and of 2.0 L m−2 h−1 in the DMA treatment. In both treatments, mean permeate flux decreased further to 1.0 L m−2 h−1 and 1.36 L m−2 h−1, as measured at the end of the experiment. Thus, the mean flux in the Microcystis replicates was about 80% lower than in the CON treatment. Biofilms in the DMA treatment were about six to seven times thicker as in the CON treatment with values of 625 (±33) µm and 796 (±29) µm for both replicates. Unfortunately, a quantification of the biofilm thickness in the LMA treatment could not be carried out.

Bottom Line: Presence of live or destroyed cyanobacterial cells in the feed water decreased the permeate flux in the Microcystis treatments considerably.At the same time, the microbial biofilms on the filter membranes could successfully reduce the amount of microcystins in the filtrate below the critical threshold concentration of 1 µg L(-1) MC for human consumption in three out of four replicates after 15 days.We found pronounced differences in the composition of bacterial communities of the biofilms on the filter membranes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Limnological Station, Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zurich, Kilchberg, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration systems require little maintenance: they operate without electricity at ultra-low pressure in dead-end mode and without control of the biofilm formation. These systems are already in use for water purification in some regions of the world where adequate treatment and distribution of drinking water is not readily available. However, many water bodies worldwide exhibit harmful blooms of cyanobacteria that severely lower the water quality due to the production of toxic microcystins (MCs). We studied the performance of a GDM system during an artificial Microcystis aeruginosa bloom in lake water and its simulated collapse (i.e., the massive release of microcystins) over a period of 21 days. Presence of live or destroyed cyanobacterial cells in the feed water decreased the permeate flux in the Microcystis treatments considerably. At the same time, the microbial biofilms on the filter membranes could successfully reduce the amount of microcystins in the filtrate below the critical threshold concentration of 1 µg L(-1) MC for human consumption in three out of four replicates after 15 days. We found pronounced differences in the composition of bacterial communities of the biofilms on the filter membranes. Bacterial genera that could be related to microcystin degradation substantially enriched in the biofilms amended with microcystin-containing cyanobacteria. In addition to bacteria previously characterized as microcystin degraders, members of other bacterial clades potentially involved in MC degradation could be identified.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus