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Fungicide effects on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.

Karlsson I, Friberg H, Steinberg C, Persson P - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden.It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied.

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Distribution of community abundance for the most abundant OTUs grouped by treatment.Boxplots with interquartile ranges showing the relative abundances of the 21 most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dataset grouped by treatment. Outliers are not shown, OTU_1_Puccinia_striiformis is therefore excluded. Significant (p<0.05) differences are marked with an asterisk.
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pone-0111786-g006: Distribution of community abundance for the most abundant OTUs grouped by treatment.Boxplots with interquartile ranges showing the relative abundances of the 21 most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dataset grouped by treatment. Outliers are not shown, OTU_1_Puccinia_striiformis is therefore excluded. Significant (p<0.05) differences are marked with an asterisk.

Mentions: The community composition at the order level was significantly different for fungicide-treated and untreated samples (Fig. 3). The proportion of Leucosporidiales (p<0.05) and Dothideales (p<0.05) was lower in fungicide-treated samples than in the control samples. This was reflected at the species level, where univariate tests showed that the relative abundance of three OTUs: OTU_6_Dioszegia_sp (p<0.05), OTU_28_Aureobasidium_pullulans_a (p<0.05) and OTU_25_Leucosporidium_golubevii (p<0.05), was lower in fungicide-treated leaves than control leaves. OTU_6_Dioszegia_sp was similar to the ITS sequences of both D. crocea and D. aurantiaca. These species have been isolated from both the phyllosphere [43] and the rhizosphere of different plants [44], [45]. Leucosporidium golubevii is a yeast discovered in freshwater [46], and has been reported from the phyllosphere of balsam poplar [47]. In addition, the relative abundance of OTU_16_Phaeosphaeria_juncophila (p<0.01) was higher in fungicide-treated leaves (Fig. 6). Phaeosphaeria juncophila was first isolated from the rush Juncus articulatus, but little is known about its ecology.


Fungicide effects on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.

Karlsson I, Friberg H, Steinberg C, Persson P - PLoS ONE (2014)

Distribution of community abundance for the most abundant OTUs grouped by treatment.Boxplots with interquartile ranges showing the relative abundances of the 21 most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dataset grouped by treatment. Outliers are not shown, OTU_1_Puccinia_striiformis is therefore excluded. Significant (p<0.05) differences are marked with an asterisk.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219778&req=5

pone-0111786-g006: Distribution of community abundance for the most abundant OTUs grouped by treatment.Boxplots with interquartile ranges showing the relative abundances of the 21 most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dataset grouped by treatment. Outliers are not shown, OTU_1_Puccinia_striiformis is therefore excluded. Significant (p<0.05) differences are marked with an asterisk.
Mentions: The community composition at the order level was significantly different for fungicide-treated and untreated samples (Fig. 3). The proportion of Leucosporidiales (p<0.05) and Dothideales (p<0.05) was lower in fungicide-treated samples than in the control samples. This was reflected at the species level, where univariate tests showed that the relative abundance of three OTUs: OTU_6_Dioszegia_sp (p<0.05), OTU_28_Aureobasidium_pullulans_a (p<0.05) and OTU_25_Leucosporidium_golubevii (p<0.05), was lower in fungicide-treated leaves than control leaves. OTU_6_Dioszegia_sp was similar to the ITS sequences of both D. crocea and D. aurantiaca. These species have been isolated from both the phyllosphere [43] and the rhizosphere of different plants [44], [45]. Leucosporidium golubevii is a yeast discovered in freshwater [46], and has been reported from the phyllosphere of balsam poplar [47]. In addition, the relative abundance of OTU_16_Phaeosphaeria_juncophila (p<0.01) was higher in fungicide-treated leaves (Fig. 6). Phaeosphaeria juncophila was first isolated from the rush Juncus articulatus, but little is known about its ecology.

Bottom Line: This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden.It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied.

Show MeSH