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Fungicide effects on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.

Karlsson I, Friberg H, Steinberg C, Persson P - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden.It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied.

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Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of phyllosphere fungal communities of wheat.Ordination of samples with fitted environmental variables. Ellipses represent 95% confidence areas for Southern area (solid grey line), Northern area (solid black line), fungicide-treated (dashed grey line) and control (dashed black line) groups respectively. The NMDS was performed on the mean of 1000 rarefied datasets.
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pone-0111786-g004: Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of phyllosphere fungal communities of wheat.Ordination of samples with fitted environmental variables. Ellipses represent 95% confidence areas for Southern area (solid grey line), Northern area (solid black line), fungicide-treated (dashed grey line) and control (dashed black line) groups respectively. The NMDS was performed on the mean of 1000 rarefied datasets.

Mentions: The application of fungicides had a significant effect on fungal community composition on wheat leaves (Fig. 4 and Table 3). The total OTU richness was lower for the fungicide-treated sample pool (Fig. 2). There was also a tendency for a lower mean OTU richness per ten leaves in the fungicide-treated samples (19.4±1.8 SE) than in the control samples (24.3±2.1 SE), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) (Fig. 5a, Table 4). There was no interaction between fungicide treatment and geographical area for neither community composition (Table 3) nor OTU richness (p>0.05) (Table 4). When samples from fields infected with Puccinia striiformis were included in the analysis, the same pattern was observed (Fig. S3a, Table S4).


Fungicide effects on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.

Karlsson I, Friberg H, Steinberg C, Persson P - PLoS ONE (2014)

Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of phyllosphere fungal communities of wheat.Ordination of samples with fitted environmental variables. Ellipses represent 95% confidence areas for Southern area (solid grey line), Northern area (solid black line), fungicide-treated (dashed grey line) and control (dashed black line) groups respectively. The NMDS was performed on the mean of 1000 rarefied datasets.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219778&req=5

pone-0111786-g004: Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of phyllosphere fungal communities of wheat.Ordination of samples with fitted environmental variables. Ellipses represent 95% confidence areas for Southern area (solid grey line), Northern area (solid black line), fungicide-treated (dashed grey line) and control (dashed black line) groups respectively. The NMDS was performed on the mean of 1000 rarefied datasets.
Mentions: The application of fungicides had a significant effect on fungal community composition on wheat leaves (Fig. 4 and Table 3). The total OTU richness was lower for the fungicide-treated sample pool (Fig. 2). There was also a tendency for a lower mean OTU richness per ten leaves in the fungicide-treated samples (19.4±1.8 SE) than in the control samples (24.3±2.1 SE), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) (Fig. 5a, Table 4). There was no interaction between fungicide treatment and geographical area for neither community composition (Table 3) nor OTU richness (p>0.05) (Table 4). When samples from fields infected with Puccinia striiformis were included in the analysis, the same pattern was observed (Fig. S3a, Table S4).

Bottom Line: This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden.It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied.

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