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Assessment of toxic effects of the methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. Fruit via biochemical and hematological evaluation in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

Uddin N, Hasan MR, Hasan MM, Hossain MM, Alam MR, Hasan MR, Islam AF, Rahman T, Rana MS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The extract presented no significant effect on body weight, percent water content, relative organ weight and hematological parameters in rat.There were no significant alterations observed with other serum biochemical parameters.Study results indicate that methanolic fruit extract is unlikely to have significant toxicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, 1342, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
Citrus macroptera Montr. (C. macroptera) is locally known as Satkara. The fruit of this plant is used as appetite stimulant and in the treatment of fever. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of the fruit extract using some biochemical and hematological parameters in rat model. The effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit administered at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were investigated on hematological and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley female rats. Moreover, histopathological study was performed to observe the presence of pathological lesions in primary body organs. The extract presented no significant effect on body weight, percent water content, relative organ weight and hematological parameters in rat. Significant decrease from control group was observed in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein; thus leading to significant decrease of cardiac risk ratio, castelli's risk index-2, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma at all doses. 500 mg/kg dose significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05), 1000 mg/kg dose significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05) and 250 mg/kg dose significantly decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin (P<0.05) from the control group. There were no significant alterations observed with other serum biochemical parameters. Histopathological study confirmed the absence of inflammatory and necrotic features in the primary body organs. Study results indicate that methanolic fruit extract is unlikely to have significant toxicity. Moreover, these findings justified the cardio-protective, moderate hepato-protective and glucose controlling activities of the fruit extract.

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Histopathological photomicrographs of control group and 1000 mg/kg dose group of C. macroptera (×100 magnification).No presence of discernible lesions including inflammation and necrosis were observed. Here, C-K =  Control-Kidney, C-L =  Control-Lung, C-C =  Control-Cecum, C-H =  Control-Heart, C-Li =  Control-Liver, C-Sp =  Control-Spleen, C-St =  Control-Stomach, M-K = 1000 mg/kg dose-Kidney, M-L = 1000 mg/kg dose-Lung, M-C = 1000 mg/kg dose-Cecum, M-H = 1000 mg/kg dose-Heart, M-Li = 1000 mg/kg dose-Liver, M-Sp = 1000 mg/kg dose-Spleen and M-St = 1000 mg/kg dose-Stomach.
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pone-0111101-g002: Histopathological photomicrographs of control group and 1000 mg/kg dose group of C. macroptera (×100 magnification).No presence of discernible lesions including inflammation and necrosis were observed. Here, C-K =  Control-Kidney, C-L =  Control-Lung, C-C =  Control-Cecum, C-H =  Control-Heart, C-Li =  Control-Liver, C-Sp =  Control-Spleen, C-St =  Control-Stomach, M-K = 1000 mg/kg dose-Kidney, M-L = 1000 mg/kg dose-Lung, M-C = 1000 mg/kg dose-Cecum, M-H = 1000 mg/kg dose-Heart, M-Li = 1000 mg/kg dose-Liver, M-Sp = 1000 mg/kg dose-Spleen and M-St = 1000 mg/kg dose-Stomach.

Mentions: There were no overt pathological lesions observed both at high and low doses of the methanol extract in histopathological study. In the figure 2 photomicrograph of histopathological study of 1000 mg/kg dose and control were presented. No abnormal signs of toxicity were found in the high dose. Histopathological observations confirmed the normal cellular architecture of the tested organs.


Assessment of toxic effects of the methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. Fruit via biochemical and hematological evaluation in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

Uddin N, Hasan MR, Hasan MM, Hossain MM, Alam MR, Hasan MR, Islam AF, Rahman T, Rana MS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Histopathological photomicrographs of control group and 1000 mg/kg dose group of C. macroptera (×100 magnification).No presence of discernible lesions including inflammation and necrosis were observed. Here, C-K =  Control-Kidney, C-L =  Control-Lung, C-C =  Control-Cecum, C-H =  Control-Heart, C-Li =  Control-Liver, C-Sp =  Control-Spleen, C-St =  Control-Stomach, M-K = 1000 mg/kg dose-Kidney, M-L = 1000 mg/kg dose-Lung, M-C = 1000 mg/kg dose-Cecum, M-H = 1000 mg/kg dose-Heart, M-Li = 1000 mg/kg dose-Liver, M-Sp = 1000 mg/kg dose-Spleen and M-St = 1000 mg/kg dose-Stomach.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219686&req=5

pone-0111101-g002: Histopathological photomicrographs of control group and 1000 mg/kg dose group of C. macroptera (×100 magnification).No presence of discernible lesions including inflammation and necrosis were observed. Here, C-K =  Control-Kidney, C-L =  Control-Lung, C-C =  Control-Cecum, C-H =  Control-Heart, C-Li =  Control-Liver, C-Sp =  Control-Spleen, C-St =  Control-Stomach, M-K = 1000 mg/kg dose-Kidney, M-L = 1000 mg/kg dose-Lung, M-C = 1000 mg/kg dose-Cecum, M-H = 1000 mg/kg dose-Heart, M-Li = 1000 mg/kg dose-Liver, M-Sp = 1000 mg/kg dose-Spleen and M-St = 1000 mg/kg dose-Stomach.
Mentions: There were no overt pathological lesions observed both at high and low doses of the methanol extract in histopathological study. In the figure 2 photomicrograph of histopathological study of 1000 mg/kg dose and control were presented. No abnormal signs of toxicity were found in the high dose. Histopathological observations confirmed the normal cellular architecture of the tested organs.

Bottom Line: The extract presented no significant effect on body weight, percent water content, relative organ weight and hematological parameters in rat.There were no significant alterations observed with other serum biochemical parameters.Study results indicate that methanolic fruit extract is unlikely to have significant toxicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, 1342, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
Citrus macroptera Montr. (C. macroptera) is locally known as Satkara. The fruit of this plant is used as appetite stimulant and in the treatment of fever. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of the fruit extract using some biochemical and hematological parameters in rat model. The effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit administered at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were investigated on hematological and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley female rats. Moreover, histopathological study was performed to observe the presence of pathological lesions in primary body organs. The extract presented no significant effect on body weight, percent water content, relative organ weight and hematological parameters in rat. Significant decrease from control group was observed in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein; thus leading to significant decrease of cardiac risk ratio, castelli's risk index-2, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma at all doses. 500 mg/kg dose significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05), 1000 mg/kg dose significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05) and 250 mg/kg dose significantly decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin (P<0.05) from the control group. There were no significant alterations observed with other serum biochemical parameters. Histopathological study confirmed the absence of inflammatory and necrotic features in the primary body organs. Study results indicate that methanolic fruit extract is unlikely to have significant toxicity. Moreover, these findings justified the cardio-protective, moderate hepato-protective and glucose controlling activities of the fruit extract.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus