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Proton pump inhibitor intake neither predisposes to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or other infections nor increases mortality in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

Mandorfer M, Bota S, Schwabl P, Bucsics T, Pfisterer N, Summereder C, Hagmann M, Blacky A, Ferlitsch A, Sieghart W, Trauner M, Peck-Radosavljevic M, Reiberger T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, PPI intake was neither associated with increased SBP prevalence at the first paracentesis (odds ratio (OR):1.11,95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.6-2.06; P = 0.731) nor cumulative incidence of SBP (subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR): 1.38; 95%CI:0.63-3.01; P = 0.42) and SBP or other infections (SHR:1.71; 95%CI:0.85-3.44; P = 0.13) during follow-up.In our cohort with a particularly high prevalence of PPI intake, we observed no association between PPIs and SBP or other infections, as well as mortality.Thus, the severity of liver disease and other factors, rather than PPI treatment per se may predispose for infectious complications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Vienna Hepatic Hemodynamic Lab, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) intake on the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) or other infections, as well as on mortality, in a thoroughly documented cohort of patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of follow-up data from 607 consecutive patients with cirrhosis undergoing their first paracentesis at a tertiary center. A binary logistic regression model investigating the association between PPI intake and SBP at the first paracentesis was calculated. Competing risk analyses and Cox models were used to investigate the effect of PPIs on the cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections and transplant-free survival, respectively. Adjustments were made for age, hepatocellular carcinoma, history of variceal bleeding, varices and model of end-stage liver disease score.

Results: Eighty-six percent of patients were receiving PPIs. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, PPI intake was neither associated with increased SBP prevalence at the first paracentesis (odds ratio (OR):1.11,95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.6-2.06; P = 0.731) nor cumulative incidence of SBP (subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR): 1.38; 95%CI:0.63-3.01; P = 0.42) and SBP or other infections (SHR:1.71; 95%CI:0.85-3.44; P = 0.13) during follow-up. Moreover, PPI intake had no impact on transplant-free survival in both the overall cohort (hazard ratio (HR):0.973,95%CI:0.719-1.317; P = 0.859) as well as in the subgroups of patients without SBP (HR:1.01,95%CI:0.72-1.42; P = 0.971) and without SBP or other infections at the first paracentesis (HR:0.944,95%CI:0.668-1.334; P = 0.742).

Conclusions: The proportion of cirrhotic patients with PPI intake was higher than in previous reports, suggesting that PPI indications were interpreted liberally. In our cohort with a particularly high prevalence of PPI intake, we observed no association between PPIs and SBP or other infections, as well as mortality. Thus, the severity of liver disease and other factors, rather than PPI treatment per se may predispose for infectious complications.

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PPI Intake and Cumulative Incidence of SBP or other Infections.Impact of PPI intake on A cumulative incidence of SBP among patients without SBP at the first paracentesis and B cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections among patients without SBP or another infection at the first paracentesis. Statistics: The impact of PPI intake on the cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections was analyzed by a competing risk analysis [32] treating death as a competing risk. *In addition to PPI intake, age, HCC, history of variceal bleeding, varices and MELD score were considered covariates. Cumulative incidence functions are shown for the models investigating the incidence of SBP or other infections. Abbreviations: PPI proton pump inhibitor; SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; SHR subdistribution hazard ratio; HCC hepatocellular carcinoma; MELD model for end-stage liver disease.
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pone-0110503-g001: PPI Intake and Cumulative Incidence of SBP or other Infections.Impact of PPI intake on A cumulative incidence of SBP among patients without SBP at the first paracentesis and B cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections among patients without SBP or another infection at the first paracentesis. Statistics: The impact of PPI intake on the cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections was analyzed by a competing risk analysis [32] treating death as a competing risk. *In addition to PPI intake, age, HCC, history of variceal bleeding, varices and MELD score were considered covariates. Cumulative incidence functions are shown for the models investigating the incidence of SBP or other infections. Abbreviations: PPI proton pump inhibitor; SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; SHR subdistribution hazard ratio; HCC hepatocellular carcinoma; MELD model for end-stage liver disease.

Mentions: The impact of PPI intake on the cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections was analyzed by a competing risk analyses [32] treating death as a competing risk. Cumulative incidence functions are shown for the models investigating the incidence of SBP or other infections (Figure 1). Transplant-free survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Patients who underwent a liver transplantation were censored on the day of surgery. Transplant-free survival time was defined as the time to liver transplantation, death or end of follow-up. Kaplan-Meier curves are presented for transplant-free survival models (Figure 2). In addition to PPI intake, age, HCC, history of variceal bleeding, varices and MELD score were considered as covariates in all of the above-mentioned models, as they were not comparable between PPI and no-PPI patients (Table 1).


Proton pump inhibitor intake neither predisposes to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or other infections nor increases mortality in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

Mandorfer M, Bota S, Schwabl P, Bucsics T, Pfisterer N, Summereder C, Hagmann M, Blacky A, Ferlitsch A, Sieghart W, Trauner M, Peck-Radosavljevic M, Reiberger T - PLoS ONE (2014)

PPI Intake and Cumulative Incidence of SBP or other Infections.Impact of PPI intake on A cumulative incidence of SBP among patients without SBP at the first paracentesis and B cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections among patients without SBP or another infection at the first paracentesis. Statistics: The impact of PPI intake on the cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections was analyzed by a competing risk analysis [32] treating death as a competing risk. *In addition to PPI intake, age, HCC, history of variceal bleeding, varices and MELD score were considered covariates. Cumulative incidence functions are shown for the models investigating the incidence of SBP or other infections. Abbreviations: PPI proton pump inhibitor; SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; SHR subdistribution hazard ratio; HCC hepatocellular carcinoma; MELD model for end-stage liver disease.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219684&req=5

pone-0110503-g001: PPI Intake and Cumulative Incidence of SBP or other Infections.Impact of PPI intake on A cumulative incidence of SBP among patients without SBP at the first paracentesis and B cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections among patients without SBP or another infection at the first paracentesis. Statistics: The impact of PPI intake on the cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections was analyzed by a competing risk analysis [32] treating death as a competing risk. *In addition to PPI intake, age, HCC, history of variceal bleeding, varices and MELD score were considered covariates. Cumulative incidence functions are shown for the models investigating the incidence of SBP or other infections. Abbreviations: PPI proton pump inhibitor; SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; SHR subdistribution hazard ratio; HCC hepatocellular carcinoma; MELD model for end-stage liver disease.
Mentions: The impact of PPI intake on the cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections was analyzed by a competing risk analyses [32] treating death as a competing risk. Cumulative incidence functions are shown for the models investigating the incidence of SBP or other infections (Figure 1). Transplant-free survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Patients who underwent a liver transplantation were censored on the day of surgery. Transplant-free survival time was defined as the time to liver transplantation, death or end of follow-up. Kaplan-Meier curves are presented for transplant-free survival models (Figure 2). In addition to PPI intake, age, HCC, history of variceal bleeding, varices and MELD score were considered as covariates in all of the above-mentioned models, as they were not comparable between PPI and no-PPI patients (Table 1).

Bottom Line: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, PPI intake was neither associated with increased SBP prevalence at the first paracentesis (odds ratio (OR):1.11,95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.6-2.06; P = 0.731) nor cumulative incidence of SBP (subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR): 1.38; 95%CI:0.63-3.01; P = 0.42) and SBP or other infections (SHR:1.71; 95%CI:0.85-3.44; P = 0.13) during follow-up.In our cohort with a particularly high prevalence of PPI intake, we observed no association between PPIs and SBP or other infections, as well as mortality.Thus, the severity of liver disease and other factors, rather than PPI treatment per se may predispose for infectious complications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Vienna Hepatic Hemodynamic Lab, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) intake on the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) or other infections, as well as on mortality, in a thoroughly documented cohort of patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of follow-up data from 607 consecutive patients with cirrhosis undergoing their first paracentesis at a tertiary center. A binary logistic regression model investigating the association between PPI intake and SBP at the first paracentesis was calculated. Competing risk analyses and Cox models were used to investigate the effect of PPIs on the cumulative incidence of SBP or other infections and transplant-free survival, respectively. Adjustments were made for age, hepatocellular carcinoma, history of variceal bleeding, varices and model of end-stage liver disease score.

Results: Eighty-six percent of patients were receiving PPIs. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, PPI intake was neither associated with increased SBP prevalence at the first paracentesis (odds ratio (OR):1.11,95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.6-2.06; P = 0.731) nor cumulative incidence of SBP (subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR): 1.38; 95%CI:0.63-3.01; P = 0.42) and SBP or other infections (SHR:1.71; 95%CI:0.85-3.44; P = 0.13) during follow-up. Moreover, PPI intake had no impact on transplant-free survival in both the overall cohort (hazard ratio (HR):0.973,95%CI:0.719-1.317; P = 0.859) as well as in the subgroups of patients without SBP (HR:1.01,95%CI:0.72-1.42; P = 0.971) and without SBP or other infections at the first paracentesis (HR:0.944,95%CI:0.668-1.334; P = 0.742).

Conclusions: The proportion of cirrhotic patients with PPI intake was higher than in previous reports, suggesting that PPI indications were interpreted liberally. In our cohort with a particularly high prevalence of PPI intake, we observed no association between PPIs and SBP or other infections, as well as mortality. Thus, the severity of liver disease and other factors, rather than PPI treatment per se may predispose for infectious complications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus