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Lombards on the move--an integrative study of the migration period cemetery at Szólád, Hungary.

Alt KW, Knipper C, Peters D, Müller W, Maurer AF, Kollig I, Nicklisch N, Müller C, Karimnia S, Brandt G, Roth C, Rosner M, Mende B, Schöne BR, Vida T, von Freeden U - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses.Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation.The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Natural and Cultural History of the Teeth, Danube Private University, Krems, Austria; State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and State Museum of Prehistory, Halle, Germany; Institute for Prehistory and Archaeological Science, Basel University, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D.), Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

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Model of the Szólád community's residential changes and occupation of the cemetery.The background colours symbolise the different Sr isotope baseline values of the settlement locations. The symbols for the females, males and subadults are marked with the colour of the locality of their childhood. The colours red and purple denote long-distance migrants. Individuals with shades that differ from the background are non-local to the locations they are mapped in. The model is a hypothetical explanation of the occupation of the Szólád cemetery with local and non-local individuals in line with the strontium isotope data distribution (graphics: D. Peters, C. Knipper).
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pone-0110793-g006: Model of the Szólád community's residential changes and occupation of the cemetery.The background colours symbolise the different Sr isotope baseline values of the settlement locations. The symbols for the females, males and subadults are marked with the colour of the locality of their childhood. The colours red and purple denote long-distance migrants. Individuals with shades that differ from the background are non-local to the locations they are mapped in. The model is a hypothetical explanation of the occupation of the Szólád cemetery with local and non-local individuals in line with the strontium isotope data distribution (graphics: D. Peters, C. Knipper).

Mentions: Given the historical context of the Migration Period, the occupation of Pannonia by the Lombards, the archaeological evidence suggesting a very short period of occupation of the site (c. 20 years: [8], [13]), and the indication of different birthplaces of adults and children allows us to propose a three-phased model of residential change and group movement (Fig. 6). We consider this a plausible explanation for the 87Sr/86Sr ratio distribution observed amongst age/sex-defined sub-groups of the Szólád burial community, and will address uncertainties concerning the local baseline values and alternative interpretations below:


Lombards on the move--an integrative study of the migration period cemetery at Szólád, Hungary.

Alt KW, Knipper C, Peters D, Müller W, Maurer AF, Kollig I, Nicklisch N, Müller C, Karimnia S, Brandt G, Roth C, Rosner M, Mende B, Schöne BR, Vida T, von Freeden U - PLoS ONE (2014)

Model of the Szólád community's residential changes and occupation of the cemetery.The background colours symbolise the different Sr isotope baseline values of the settlement locations. The symbols for the females, males and subadults are marked with the colour of the locality of their childhood. The colours red and purple denote long-distance migrants. Individuals with shades that differ from the background are non-local to the locations they are mapped in. The model is a hypothetical explanation of the occupation of the Szólád cemetery with local and non-local individuals in line with the strontium isotope data distribution (graphics: D. Peters, C. Knipper).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219681&req=5

pone-0110793-g006: Model of the Szólád community's residential changes and occupation of the cemetery.The background colours symbolise the different Sr isotope baseline values of the settlement locations. The symbols for the females, males and subadults are marked with the colour of the locality of their childhood. The colours red and purple denote long-distance migrants. Individuals with shades that differ from the background are non-local to the locations they are mapped in. The model is a hypothetical explanation of the occupation of the Szólád cemetery with local and non-local individuals in line with the strontium isotope data distribution (graphics: D. Peters, C. Knipper).
Mentions: Given the historical context of the Migration Period, the occupation of Pannonia by the Lombards, the archaeological evidence suggesting a very short period of occupation of the site (c. 20 years: [8], [13]), and the indication of different birthplaces of adults and children allows us to propose a three-phased model of residential change and group movement (Fig. 6). We consider this a plausible explanation for the 87Sr/86Sr ratio distribution observed amongst age/sex-defined sub-groups of the Szólád burial community, and will address uncertainties concerning the local baseline values and alternative interpretations below:

Bottom Line: Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses.Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation.The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Natural and Cultural History of the Teeth, Danube Private University, Krems, Austria; State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and State Museum of Prehistory, Halle, Germany; Institute for Prehistory and Archaeological Science, Basel University, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D.), Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus