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Lombards on the move--an integrative study of the migration period cemetery at Szólád, Hungary.

Alt KW, Knipper C, Peters D, Müller W, Maurer AF, Kollig I, Nicklisch N, Müller C, Karimnia S, Brandt G, Roth C, Rosner M, Mende B, Schöne BR, Vida T, von Freeden U - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses.Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation.The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Natural and Cultural History of the Teeth, Danube Private University, Krems, Austria; State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and State Museum of Prehistory, Halle, Germany; Institute for Prehistory and Archaeological Science, Basel University, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D.), Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

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Map showing the location of the Szólád cemetery on the southern shore of Lake Balaton and the sites of Balatonszárszó and Kestzthely-Fenékpuszta, which have yielded strontium isotope reference data.The DEM is based on SRTM (90 m) data, edited by H.-J. Köhler, U. v. Freeden, D. Peters and C. Knipper.
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pone-0110793-g001: Map showing the location of the Szólád cemetery on the southern shore of Lake Balaton and the sites of Balatonszárszó and Kestzthely-Fenékpuszta, which have yielded strontium isotope reference data.The DEM is based on SRTM (90 m) data, edited by H.-J. Köhler, U. v. Freeden, D. Peters and C. Knipper.

Mentions: Szólád is situated approximately five kilometres south of Lake Balaton on a south-oriented loess slope [12] above a valley that is 30 km long, and at Szólád some 400 to 600 m wide. The area is a boggy former backwater of the lake [13] (Fig. 1). Excavations took place between 2005 and 2007 as a joint venture of the Roman-Germanic Commission (RGK) of the German Archaeological Institute in Frankfurt am Main (Germany), the Committee of Archaeology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest (Hungary), and the Institute of Anthropology of the University of Mainz (Germany). Planning, fieldwork, and analysis were conducted in close collaboration and the early involvement of anthropologists ensured an appropriate recovery of the human skeletal remains and sterile in situ sampling.


Lombards on the move--an integrative study of the migration period cemetery at Szólád, Hungary.

Alt KW, Knipper C, Peters D, Müller W, Maurer AF, Kollig I, Nicklisch N, Müller C, Karimnia S, Brandt G, Roth C, Rosner M, Mende B, Schöne BR, Vida T, von Freeden U - PLoS ONE (2014)

Map showing the location of the Szólád cemetery on the southern shore of Lake Balaton and the sites of Balatonszárszó and Kestzthely-Fenékpuszta, which have yielded strontium isotope reference data.The DEM is based on SRTM (90 m) data, edited by H.-J. Köhler, U. v. Freeden, D. Peters and C. Knipper.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219681&req=5

pone-0110793-g001: Map showing the location of the Szólád cemetery on the southern shore of Lake Balaton and the sites of Balatonszárszó and Kestzthely-Fenékpuszta, which have yielded strontium isotope reference data.The DEM is based on SRTM (90 m) data, edited by H.-J. Köhler, U. v. Freeden, D. Peters and C. Knipper.
Mentions: Szólád is situated approximately five kilometres south of Lake Balaton on a south-oriented loess slope [12] above a valley that is 30 km long, and at Szólád some 400 to 600 m wide. The area is a boggy former backwater of the lake [13] (Fig. 1). Excavations took place between 2005 and 2007 as a joint venture of the Roman-Germanic Commission (RGK) of the German Archaeological Institute in Frankfurt am Main (Germany), the Committee of Archaeology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest (Hungary), and the Institute of Anthropology of the University of Mainz (Germany). Planning, fieldwork, and analysis were conducted in close collaboration and the early involvement of anthropologists ensured an appropriate recovery of the human skeletal remains and sterile in situ sampling.

Bottom Line: Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses.Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation.The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Natural and Cultural History of the Teeth, Danube Private University, Krems, Austria; State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and State Museum of Prehistory, Halle, Germany; Institute for Prehistory and Archaeological Science, Basel University, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D.), Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus