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Development of a cost effective three-dimensional posture analysis tool: validity and reliability.

Brink Y, Louw Q, Grimmer K, Schreve K, van der Westhuizen G, Jordaan E - BMC Musculoskelet Disord (2013)

Bottom Line: The first study compared the 3D-(X-, Y- and Z-) coordinates of reflective markers placed on a mannequin using the 3D-PAT, and the Vicon motion analysis system.The 3D-PAT is appropriate for research and clinical settings to measure five upper quadrant postural angles in three dimensions.As a measurement instrument it can provide further understanding of the relationship between sitting posture, changes to sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa. ybrink@sun.ac.za.

ABSTRACT

Background: The lack of clear understanding of the association between sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain, might reflect invalid and/or unreliable posture measurement instruments. The psychometric properties of any new measurement instrument should be demonstrated prior to use for research or clinical purposes. This paper describes psychometric testing of a new three-dimensional (3D), portable, non-invasive posture analysis tool (3D-PAT), from sequential studies using a mannequin and high school students.

Methods: The first study compared the 3D-(X-, Y- and Z-) coordinates of reflective markers placed on a mannequin using the 3D-PAT, and the Vicon motion analysis system. This study also tested the reliability of taking repeated measures of the 3D-coordinates of the reflective markers. The second study determined the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the 3D-PAT measurements of nine sitting postural angles of high school students undertaking a standard computing task. In both studies, concordance correlation coefficients and Intraclass correlation coefficients described test-retest reliability, whilst Pearson product moment correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated concurrent validity.

Results: The 3D-PAT provides reliable and valid 3D measurements of five of the nine postural angles i.e. head flexion, neck flexion, cranio-cervical angle, trunk flexion and head lateral bending in adolescents undertaking a standard task.

Conclusions: The 3D-PAT is appropriate for research and clinical settings to measure five upper quadrant postural angles in three dimensions. As a measurement instrument it can provide further understanding of the relationship between sitting posture, changes to sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain.

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The placement of the reflective markers on the mannequin.
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Figure 1: The placement of the reflective markers on the mannequin.

Mentions: For the mannequin study, the ‘Choking Charlie’ Heimlich Abdominal Thrust Maneuver Training mannequin was positioned on a wooden table in the centre of both instruments’ capture volume, to ensure that each marker was visible by two or more cameras from each instrument. Reflective markers were placed on both canthi, tragi, acromioclavicular joints, midpoint of shoulders, hips, spinous processes (SPs) of C7, T5 and T8 and the superior border of the sternum, using double-sided tape. Seven different mannequin positions were captured: 1) on a flat surface, facing the Y-plane; 2) on a flat surface, facing the X-plane; 3) on a flat surface, rotated 180° clockwise from the Y-plane; 4) on a flat surface, rotated 135° counter clockwise from the Y-plane; 5) facing the Y-plane, tilted forward; 6) rotated 45° from the Y-plane, tilted forward to the left; 7) facing the Y-plane, tilted forward to the left. Figure 1 illustrates the placement of the reflective markers on the mannequin.


Development of a cost effective three-dimensional posture analysis tool: validity and reliability.

Brink Y, Louw Q, Grimmer K, Schreve K, van der Westhuizen G, Jordaan E - BMC Musculoskelet Disord (2013)

The placement of the reflective markers on the mannequin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219581&req=5

Figure 1: The placement of the reflective markers on the mannequin.
Mentions: For the mannequin study, the ‘Choking Charlie’ Heimlich Abdominal Thrust Maneuver Training mannequin was positioned on a wooden table in the centre of both instruments’ capture volume, to ensure that each marker was visible by two or more cameras from each instrument. Reflective markers were placed on both canthi, tragi, acromioclavicular joints, midpoint of shoulders, hips, spinous processes (SPs) of C7, T5 and T8 and the superior border of the sternum, using double-sided tape. Seven different mannequin positions were captured: 1) on a flat surface, facing the Y-plane; 2) on a flat surface, facing the X-plane; 3) on a flat surface, rotated 180° clockwise from the Y-plane; 4) on a flat surface, rotated 135° counter clockwise from the Y-plane; 5) facing the Y-plane, tilted forward; 6) rotated 45° from the Y-plane, tilted forward to the left; 7) facing the Y-plane, tilted forward to the left. Figure 1 illustrates the placement of the reflective markers on the mannequin.

Bottom Line: The first study compared the 3D-(X-, Y- and Z-) coordinates of reflective markers placed on a mannequin using the 3D-PAT, and the Vicon motion analysis system.The 3D-PAT is appropriate for research and clinical settings to measure five upper quadrant postural angles in three dimensions.As a measurement instrument it can provide further understanding of the relationship between sitting posture, changes to sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa. ybrink@sun.ac.za.

ABSTRACT

Background: The lack of clear understanding of the association between sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain, might reflect invalid and/or unreliable posture measurement instruments. The psychometric properties of any new measurement instrument should be demonstrated prior to use for research or clinical purposes. This paper describes psychometric testing of a new three-dimensional (3D), portable, non-invasive posture analysis tool (3D-PAT), from sequential studies using a mannequin and high school students.

Methods: The first study compared the 3D-(X-, Y- and Z-) coordinates of reflective markers placed on a mannequin using the 3D-PAT, and the Vicon motion analysis system. This study also tested the reliability of taking repeated measures of the 3D-coordinates of the reflective markers. The second study determined the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the 3D-PAT measurements of nine sitting postural angles of high school students undertaking a standard computing task. In both studies, concordance correlation coefficients and Intraclass correlation coefficients described test-retest reliability, whilst Pearson product moment correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated concurrent validity.

Results: The 3D-PAT provides reliable and valid 3D measurements of five of the nine postural angles i.e. head flexion, neck flexion, cranio-cervical angle, trunk flexion and head lateral bending in adolescents undertaking a standard task.

Conclusions: The 3D-PAT is appropriate for research and clinical settings to measure five upper quadrant postural angles in three dimensions. As a measurement instrument it can provide further understanding of the relationship between sitting posture, changes to sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus