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Initial subjective reward: single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice.

Grisel JE, Beasley JB, Bertram EC, Decker BE, Duan CA, Etuma M, Hand A, Locklear MN, Whitmire MP - Front Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress) in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions.Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm.In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5 g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology, Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress) in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug's reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5 g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Demonstration of single-exposure conditioned place preference to EtOH. Each apparatus had three compartments including a neutral center compartment and two conditioning chambers that were distinguished by the pattern of tile floor (A,B). All experiments were counterbalanced in terms of the drug-paired conditioning context (Circle or Square tile) and the day of EtOH exposure (day 1 or 3 of conditioning). After receiving 1.5 g/kg EtOH on day 1 or 3 of a 5-day protocol, adult C57BL/6J mice in Experiment 1a (n = 8) preferred the alcohol-paired context to the saline-paired context on day 5 (C). The nearly 2 min difference between the time spent on the sides was significantly greater than zero [t(7) = 5.282, p < 0.01]. (D) Subtracting out time spent in the neutral center chamber, indicates that on average, subjects spent about 57% of their onside-time in the EtOH-paired context, as opposed to about 43% in the saline-paired environment [t(7) = 39.362, p < 0.001]. The experimental apparatus employed in these studies was unbiased, and subjects were equally likely to have EtOH on either floor (painted circle or square tile) and time spent in both contexts was equal on the test day; t(7) = 0.260, p = 0.803 (E). Finally, the day of EtOH administration did not affect CPP as subjects receiving EtOH on day 1 or 3 showed comparable preference for the EtOH-paired floor on day 5 [F(1, 7) = 0.277, p = 62] (F). *indicates p < 0.05.
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Figure 1: Demonstration of single-exposure conditioned place preference to EtOH. Each apparatus had three compartments including a neutral center compartment and two conditioning chambers that were distinguished by the pattern of tile floor (A,B). All experiments were counterbalanced in terms of the drug-paired conditioning context (Circle or Square tile) and the day of EtOH exposure (day 1 or 3 of conditioning). After receiving 1.5 g/kg EtOH on day 1 or 3 of a 5-day protocol, adult C57BL/6J mice in Experiment 1a (n = 8) preferred the alcohol-paired context to the saline-paired context on day 5 (C). The nearly 2 min difference between the time spent on the sides was significantly greater than zero [t(7) = 5.282, p < 0.01]. (D) Subtracting out time spent in the neutral center chamber, indicates that on average, subjects spent about 57% of their onside-time in the EtOH-paired context, as opposed to about 43% in the saline-paired environment [t(7) = 39.362, p < 0.001]. The experimental apparatus employed in these studies was unbiased, and subjects were equally likely to have EtOH on either floor (painted circle or square tile) and time spent in both contexts was equal on the test day; t(7) = 0.260, p = 0.803 (E). Finally, the day of EtOH administration did not affect CPP as subjects receiving EtOH on day 1 or 3 showed comparable preference for the EtOH-paired floor on day 5 [F(1, 7) = 0.277, p = 62] (F). *indicates p < 0.05.

Mentions: Our apparatus was unbiased, employing two distinct floor tile patterns available at our local home improvement store. One was comprised of circles of various sizes, and the other of uniform square tiles; both were painted the same color red (see Figure 1B). These floors (42 × 24 cm) served as conditioning contexts, in a 3 chamber apparatus (Figure 1A) that was otherwise opaque white Plexiglas. The center chamber was smaller than the others (11.5 × 24) and intended to be stimulus-neutral with a smooth black floor.


Initial subjective reward: single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice.

Grisel JE, Beasley JB, Bertram EC, Decker BE, Duan CA, Etuma M, Hand A, Locklear MN, Whitmire MP - Front Neurosci (2014)

Demonstration of single-exposure conditioned place preference to EtOH. Each apparatus had three compartments including a neutral center compartment and two conditioning chambers that were distinguished by the pattern of tile floor (A,B). All experiments were counterbalanced in terms of the drug-paired conditioning context (Circle or Square tile) and the day of EtOH exposure (day 1 or 3 of conditioning). After receiving 1.5 g/kg EtOH on day 1 or 3 of a 5-day protocol, adult C57BL/6J mice in Experiment 1a (n = 8) preferred the alcohol-paired context to the saline-paired context on day 5 (C). The nearly 2 min difference between the time spent on the sides was significantly greater than zero [t(7) = 5.282, p < 0.01]. (D) Subtracting out time spent in the neutral center chamber, indicates that on average, subjects spent about 57% of their onside-time in the EtOH-paired context, as opposed to about 43% in the saline-paired environment [t(7) = 39.362, p < 0.001]. The experimental apparatus employed in these studies was unbiased, and subjects were equally likely to have EtOH on either floor (painted circle or square tile) and time spent in both contexts was equal on the test day; t(7) = 0.260, p = 0.803 (E). Finally, the day of EtOH administration did not affect CPP as subjects receiving EtOH on day 1 or 3 showed comparable preference for the EtOH-paired floor on day 5 [F(1, 7) = 0.277, p = 62] (F). *indicates p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219544&req=5

Figure 1: Demonstration of single-exposure conditioned place preference to EtOH. Each apparatus had three compartments including a neutral center compartment and two conditioning chambers that were distinguished by the pattern of tile floor (A,B). All experiments were counterbalanced in terms of the drug-paired conditioning context (Circle or Square tile) and the day of EtOH exposure (day 1 or 3 of conditioning). After receiving 1.5 g/kg EtOH on day 1 or 3 of a 5-day protocol, adult C57BL/6J mice in Experiment 1a (n = 8) preferred the alcohol-paired context to the saline-paired context on day 5 (C). The nearly 2 min difference between the time spent on the sides was significantly greater than zero [t(7) = 5.282, p < 0.01]. (D) Subtracting out time spent in the neutral center chamber, indicates that on average, subjects spent about 57% of their onside-time in the EtOH-paired context, as opposed to about 43% in the saline-paired environment [t(7) = 39.362, p < 0.001]. The experimental apparatus employed in these studies was unbiased, and subjects were equally likely to have EtOH on either floor (painted circle or square tile) and time spent in both contexts was equal on the test day; t(7) = 0.260, p = 0.803 (E). Finally, the day of EtOH administration did not affect CPP as subjects receiving EtOH on day 1 or 3 showed comparable preference for the EtOH-paired floor on day 5 [F(1, 7) = 0.277, p = 62] (F). *indicates p < 0.05.
Mentions: Our apparatus was unbiased, employing two distinct floor tile patterns available at our local home improvement store. One was comprised of circles of various sizes, and the other of uniform square tiles; both were painted the same color red (see Figure 1B). These floors (42 × 24 cm) served as conditioning contexts, in a 3 chamber apparatus (Figure 1A) that was otherwise opaque white Plexiglas. The center chamber was smaller than the others (11.5 × 24) and intended to be stimulus-neutral with a smooth black floor.

Bottom Line: Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress) in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions.Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm.In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5 g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology, Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress) in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug's reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5 g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus