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Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the US: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

Young CA, Charlton ND, Takach JE, Swoboda GA, Trammell MA, Huhman DV, Hopkins AA - Front Chem (2014)

Bottom Line: FaTG-4.Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci.Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Forage Improvement Division Ardmore, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the US around the late 1800's. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the US, commonly referred to as "Kentucky-31" (KY31), harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3, or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental US. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental US across historical and current tall fescue samples.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A timeline of significant events associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue. Citations include a, Cunningham, 1948; b, Jacobson et al., 1963; c, Fergus and Buckner, 1972; d, Bacon et al., 1977; e, Morgan-Jones and Gams, 1982; f, Lyons et al., 1986; g, Pedersen et al., 1990; h, Groppe et al., 1995; Moon et al., 1999; i, Panaccione et al., 2001; j, Bouton et al., 2002; k, Wang et al., 2004; l, Fleetwood et al., 2007; m, Schardl et al., 2013b.
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Figure 1: A timeline of significant events associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue. Citations include a, Cunningham, 1948; b, Jacobson et al., 1963; c, Fergus and Buckner, 1972; d, Bacon et al., 1977; e, Morgan-Jones and Gams, 1982; f, Lyons et al., 1986; g, Pedersen et al., 1990; h, Groppe et al., 1995; Moon et al., 1999; i, Panaccione et al., 2001; j, Bouton et al., 2002; k, Wang et al., 2004; l, Fleetwood et al., 2007; m, Schardl et al., 2013b.

Mentions: Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn Festuca arundinaceae Shreb.] was introduced into the United States from Europe in the 1800's and is considered an important cool season perennial forage crop (Hoveland, 2009). Tall fescue is widely adapted to the eastern United States spanning 14 million hectares (35 million acres) with the fescue belt considered the major region of adaptation and use (Figure 1) (Ball et al., 1993). A timeline representing significant research events of tall fescue is shown in Figure 1 and outlined below.


Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the US: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

Young CA, Charlton ND, Takach JE, Swoboda GA, Trammell MA, Huhman DV, Hopkins AA - Front Chem (2014)

A timeline of significant events associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue. Citations include a, Cunningham, 1948; b, Jacobson et al., 1963; c, Fergus and Buckner, 1972; d, Bacon et al., 1977; e, Morgan-Jones and Gams, 1982; f, Lyons et al., 1986; g, Pedersen et al., 1990; h, Groppe et al., 1995; Moon et al., 1999; i, Panaccione et al., 2001; j, Bouton et al., 2002; k, Wang et al., 2004; l, Fleetwood et al., 2007; m, Schardl et al., 2013b.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219521&req=5

Figure 1: A timeline of significant events associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue. Citations include a, Cunningham, 1948; b, Jacobson et al., 1963; c, Fergus and Buckner, 1972; d, Bacon et al., 1977; e, Morgan-Jones and Gams, 1982; f, Lyons et al., 1986; g, Pedersen et al., 1990; h, Groppe et al., 1995; Moon et al., 1999; i, Panaccione et al., 2001; j, Bouton et al., 2002; k, Wang et al., 2004; l, Fleetwood et al., 2007; m, Schardl et al., 2013b.
Mentions: Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn Festuca arundinaceae Shreb.] was introduced into the United States from Europe in the 1800's and is considered an important cool season perennial forage crop (Hoveland, 2009). Tall fescue is widely adapted to the eastern United States spanning 14 million hectares (35 million acres) with the fescue belt considered the major region of adaptation and use (Figure 1) (Ball et al., 1993). A timeline representing significant research events of tall fescue is shown in Figure 1 and outlined below.

Bottom Line: FaTG-4.Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci.Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Forage Improvement Division Ardmore, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the US around the late 1800's. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the US, commonly referred to as "Kentucky-31" (KY31), harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3, or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental US. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental US across historical and current tall fescue samples.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus