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Active trachoma two years after three rounds of azithromycin mass treatment in Cheha District Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

Admassu F, Bayu S, Bejiga A, Amare B - BMC Pediatr (2013)

Bottom Line: Azithromycin mass distribution was given to residents of Gurage zone Cheha district in 2004, 2005 and 2006 for three consecutive years with more than 90% coverage.The effect of treatment in the study community was not yet determined.Only 27.6% (95% CI 25.7% - 30.1%) of the study population had a safe and clean water supply, whereas 42.7% (95% CI 39.8% - 46.2%) of the visited households had simple pit latrines.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia. amarebem6@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Azithromycin mass distribution was given to residents of Gurage zone Cheha district in 2004, 2005 and 2006 for three consecutive years with more than 90% coverage. The effect of treatment in the study community was not yet determined. The present study was therefore designed to assess the effect of azithromycin on the prevalence of active trachoma two years after three rounds of mass treatment of the community at Cheha district, Gurage zone.

Methods: A multistage stratified cluster random survey was employed to determine the prevalence of active trachoma among children aged 1 to 9. Selected children were examined for trachoma using the simplified WHO grading system and their households were assessed for trachoma risk factors.

Results: This survey demonstrated that the prevalence of active trachoma in the study community was 22.8% (95% CI 18.24% - 27.36%) that was lower than that of Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Regional prevalence (33.2%) in 2006. Only 27.6% (95% CI 25.7% - 30.1%) of the study population had a safe and clean water supply, whereas 42.7% (95% CI 39.8% - 46.2%) of the visited households had simple pit latrines.

Conclusion: This survey demonstrated that despite repeated mass oral azithromycin distributions, the prevalence of active trachoma was still high. Therefore, the other components of the SAFE strategy such as fly control program, improving the water sources, measures to improve face washing and construction of utilizable latrines that are being implemented through the health extension package have to be integrated with mass azithromycin treatment to eliminate active trachoma in the district.

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Prevalence of active trachoma by age and sex in children aged 1–9 years at Gurage zone Cheha District in October 2008.
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Figure 1: Prevalence of active trachoma by age and sex in children aged 1–9 years at Gurage zone Cheha District in October 2008.

Mentions: In this study, we found a total of 175 (22.8%) (95% CI 18.24% - 27.36%) children had active trachoma with a slight male preponderance; that is 96 (54.9%) were males. The highest of prevalence trachoma was in the age group 2 to 6 years (Figure 1). Two hundred and seventy six children (35.9%) were having unclean face with flies around their faces and eyes, eye and nasal discharge at the time of the survey. Out of the 49 children who had never received azithromycin in the past, 12 (24.5%) had active trachoma while 28 (47.5%) of children who received the drug one time, 54 (51.4%) of children who received the drug two times and 81 (14.6%) of children who received the drug three times had active trachoma (Figure 2). Three hundred sixteen (41.1%) of the children were found out to have scared tarsal conjunctiva.


Active trachoma two years after three rounds of azithromycin mass treatment in Cheha District Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

Admassu F, Bayu S, Bejiga A, Amare B - BMC Pediatr (2013)

Prevalence of active trachoma by age and sex in children aged 1–9 years at Gurage zone Cheha District in October 2008.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219499&req=5

Figure 1: Prevalence of active trachoma by age and sex in children aged 1–9 years at Gurage zone Cheha District in October 2008.
Mentions: In this study, we found a total of 175 (22.8%) (95% CI 18.24% - 27.36%) children had active trachoma with a slight male preponderance; that is 96 (54.9%) were males. The highest of prevalence trachoma was in the age group 2 to 6 years (Figure 1). Two hundred and seventy six children (35.9%) were having unclean face with flies around their faces and eyes, eye and nasal discharge at the time of the survey. Out of the 49 children who had never received azithromycin in the past, 12 (24.5%) had active trachoma while 28 (47.5%) of children who received the drug one time, 54 (51.4%) of children who received the drug two times and 81 (14.6%) of children who received the drug three times had active trachoma (Figure 2). Three hundred sixteen (41.1%) of the children were found out to have scared tarsal conjunctiva.

Bottom Line: Azithromycin mass distribution was given to residents of Gurage zone Cheha district in 2004, 2005 and 2006 for three consecutive years with more than 90% coverage.The effect of treatment in the study community was not yet determined.Only 27.6% (95% CI 25.7% - 30.1%) of the study population had a safe and clean water supply, whereas 42.7% (95% CI 39.8% - 46.2%) of the visited households had simple pit latrines.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia. amarebem6@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Azithromycin mass distribution was given to residents of Gurage zone Cheha district in 2004, 2005 and 2006 for three consecutive years with more than 90% coverage. The effect of treatment in the study community was not yet determined. The present study was therefore designed to assess the effect of azithromycin on the prevalence of active trachoma two years after three rounds of mass treatment of the community at Cheha district, Gurage zone.

Methods: A multistage stratified cluster random survey was employed to determine the prevalence of active trachoma among children aged 1 to 9. Selected children were examined for trachoma using the simplified WHO grading system and their households were assessed for trachoma risk factors.

Results: This survey demonstrated that the prevalence of active trachoma in the study community was 22.8% (95% CI 18.24% - 27.36%) that was lower than that of Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Regional prevalence (33.2%) in 2006. Only 27.6% (95% CI 25.7% - 30.1%) of the study population had a safe and clean water supply, whereas 42.7% (95% CI 39.8% - 46.2%) of the visited households had simple pit latrines.

Conclusion: This survey demonstrated that despite repeated mass oral azithromycin distributions, the prevalence of active trachoma was still high. Therefore, the other components of the SAFE strategy such as fly control program, improving the water sources, measures to improve face washing and construction of utilizable latrines that are being implemented through the health extension package have to be integrated with mass azithromycin treatment to eliminate active trachoma in the district.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus