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How can we design better vaccines to prevent HIV infection in women?

Rafferty H, Sibeko S, Rowland-Jones S - Front Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: Effective protection of women against HIV-1 infection may require a vaccine specifically targeting mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract (FGT).To achieve this goal, a much better understanding of the immunology of the FGT is needed.Advances in other fields that enhance our understanding of female genital immune correlates and the interplay between hormonal and immunological systems may also help to achieve protection of women from HIV infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford Oxford, UK.

ABSTRACT
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden in women continues to increase, and heterosexual contact is now the most common route of infection worldwide. Effective protection of women against HIV-1 infection may require a vaccine specifically targeting mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract (FGT). To achieve this goal, a much better understanding of the immunology of the FGT is needed. Here we review the architecture of the immune system of the FGT, recent studies of potential methods to achieve the goal of mucosal protection in women, including systemic-prime, mucosal-boost, FGT-tropic vectors and immune response altering adjuvants. Advances in other fields that enhance our understanding of female genital immune correlates and the interplay between hormonal and immunological systems may also help to achieve protection of women from HIV infection.

No MeSH data available.


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Crossing the first line of defense, the epithelial mucosa, and targets of HIV infection.
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Figure 2: Crossing the first line of defense, the epithelial mucosa, and targets of HIV infection.

Mentions: It was initially thought that HIV first infected vaginal APCs such as macrophages and Langerhans cells, with subsequent rounds of replication occurring in the draining lymph nodes. This was thought to be followed by spread to more proximal lymphoid nodes and finally to the bloodstream and distant lymphoid tissue (Miller, 1998). Subsequently Zhang et al showed that the first cell to be infected is the endocervical intraepithelial resting CD4+ T cell (Zhang et al., 1999). Human cervical explant culture models confirmed that memory CD4+ T cells were the first infected during HIV transmission across the cervical mucosa (Gupta et al., 2002) (see Figure 2).


How can we design better vaccines to prevent HIV infection in women?

Rafferty H, Sibeko S, Rowland-Jones S - Front Microbiol (2014)

Crossing the first line of defense, the epithelial mucosa, and targets of HIV infection.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219488&req=5

Figure 2: Crossing the first line of defense, the epithelial mucosa, and targets of HIV infection.
Mentions: It was initially thought that HIV first infected vaginal APCs such as macrophages and Langerhans cells, with subsequent rounds of replication occurring in the draining lymph nodes. This was thought to be followed by spread to more proximal lymphoid nodes and finally to the bloodstream and distant lymphoid tissue (Miller, 1998). Subsequently Zhang et al showed that the first cell to be infected is the endocervical intraepithelial resting CD4+ T cell (Zhang et al., 1999). Human cervical explant culture models confirmed that memory CD4+ T cells were the first infected during HIV transmission across the cervical mucosa (Gupta et al., 2002) (see Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Effective protection of women against HIV-1 infection may require a vaccine specifically targeting mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract (FGT).To achieve this goal, a much better understanding of the immunology of the FGT is needed.Advances in other fields that enhance our understanding of female genital immune correlates and the interplay between hormonal and immunological systems may also help to achieve protection of women from HIV infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford Oxford, UK.

ABSTRACT
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden in women continues to increase, and heterosexual contact is now the most common route of infection worldwide. Effective protection of women against HIV-1 infection may require a vaccine specifically targeting mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract (FGT). To achieve this goal, a much better understanding of the immunology of the FGT is needed. Here we review the architecture of the immune system of the FGT, recent studies of potential methods to achieve the goal of mucosal protection in women, including systemic-prime, mucosal-boost, FGT-tropic vectors and immune response altering adjuvants. Advances in other fields that enhance our understanding of female genital immune correlates and the interplay between hormonal and immunological systems may also help to achieve protection of women from HIV infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus