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Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Kuo A, Kohler A, Martin FM, Grigoriev IV - Front Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors.The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes.The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute Walnut Creek, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

From sequence to function of symbiotic genes. Understanding evolution and function of mycorrhizal interactions can be driven by large scale genomics, transcriptomics and metatranscriptomics studies.
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Figure 1: From sequence to function of symbiotic genes. Understanding evolution and function of mycorrhizal interactions can be driven by large scale genomics, transcriptomics and metatranscriptomics studies.

Mentions: The biochemical, genetic, and transcriptomic experiments are being aided by a massive effort to sequence the genomes of multiple mycorrhizal fungal (Figure 1). The first three of those genomes to be published are those of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor, the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum, and the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly Glomus intraradices; Martin et al., 2008, 2010; Tisserant et al., 2013). These first three were chosen for both their diversity and their individual scientific and economic significance. They represent the two most important mycorrhizal morphotypes and three major fungal phyla. The ECM basidiomycete L. bicolor and the AM glomeromycete R. irregularis were also selected as part of a larger effort to sequence the microbiome of the bioenergy-domesticated poplar tree Populus trichocarpa. The ECM ascomycete T. melanosporum is of commercial importance in its own right as the gustatory delicacy, black truffle.


Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Kuo A, Kohler A, Martin FM, Grigoriev IV - Front Microbiol (2014)

From sequence to function of symbiotic genes. Understanding evolution and function of mycorrhizal interactions can be driven by large scale genomics, transcriptomics and metatranscriptomics studies.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219462&req=5

Figure 1: From sequence to function of symbiotic genes. Understanding evolution and function of mycorrhizal interactions can be driven by large scale genomics, transcriptomics and metatranscriptomics studies.
Mentions: The biochemical, genetic, and transcriptomic experiments are being aided by a massive effort to sequence the genomes of multiple mycorrhizal fungal (Figure 1). The first three of those genomes to be published are those of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor, the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum, and the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly Glomus intraradices; Martin et al., 2008, 2010; Tisserant et al., 2013). These first three were chosen for both their diversity and their individual scientific and economic significance. They represent the two most important mycorrhizal morphotypes and three major fungal phyla. The ECM basidiomycete L. bicolor and the AM glomeromycete R. irregularis were also selected as part of a larger effort to sequence the microbiome of the bioenergy-domesticated poplar tree Populus trichocarpa. The ECM ascomycete T. melanosporum is of commercial importance in its own right as the gustatory delicacy, black truffle.

Bottom Line: The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors.The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes.The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute Walnut Creek, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus