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Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective.

Llinás RR - Front Cell Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons.It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function.The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY, USA.

ABSTRACT
This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

No MeSH data available.


Ionic conductances and the mechanism for oscillation in inferior olivary cells. Left: Drawing of an inferior olivary cell by Ramón y Cajal. Center: Table giving the distribution of ionic conductances in somatic and dendritic regions. At the soma a set of conductances (gNa and gk) generating fast action potentials may be observed. In addition, a strongly inactivated Ca2+ conductance is present, which produces rebound spikes, as seen in (B) [gCa (somatic)]. Also recorded at the soma is a large Ca2+-dependent dendritic spike [gCa (dendtritic)] that generates the afterdepolarization and the powerful, long-lasting afterhypolarization, which is produced by a Ca2+-dependent K+ conductance [gK(Ca)]. In addition, a voltage-dependent K+ conductance (gK) seems to be present in the dendrites. Right A: Rebound spikes in the inferior olivary neuron (arrow) following blockage of the Na spike with tetrodotoxin (TTX). Right B: Summary of the ionic conductances that generate single-cell oscillations in neurons of the inferior olive.
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Figure 5: Ionic conductances and the mechanism for oscillation in inferior olivary cells. Left: Drawing of an inferior olivary cell by Ramón y Cajal. Center: Table giving the distribution of ionic conductances in somatic and dendritic regions. At the soma a set of conductances (gNa and gk) generating fast action potentials may be observed. In addition, a strongly inactivated Ca2+ conductance is present, which produces rebound spikes, as seen in (B) [gCa (somatic)]. Also recorded at the soma is a large Ca2+-dependent dendritic spike [gCa (dendtritic)] that generates the afterdepolarization and the powerful, long-lasting afterhypolarization, which is produced by a Ca2+-dependent K+ conductance [gK(Ca)]. In addition, a voltage-dependent K+ conductance (gK) seems to be present in the dendrites. Right A: Rebound spikes in the inferior olivary neuron (arrow) following blockage of the Na spike with tetrodotoxin (TTX). Right B: Summary of the ionic conductances that generate single-cell oscillations in neurons of the inferior olive.

Mentions: Cells of the inferior olivary nucleus have also been shown to have dendritic and somatic conductances underlying an intrinsic electrophysiological profile. Indeed, in vitro experiments using brainstem slices (Llinás and Yarom, 1981, 1986) first demonstrated that IO neurons have a set of voltage-gated ionic conductances that give these cells intrinsic oscillatory properties (Figure 5). Thus, the firing of IO cells is characterized by an initial fast-rising action potential (a somatic sodium spike), which is prolonged to 10–15 ms by an afterdepolarization (a Ca2+-dependent dendritic spike).


Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective.

Llinás RR - Front Cell Neurosci (2014)

Ionic conductances and the mechanism for oscillation in inferior olivary cells. Left: Drawing of an inferior olivary cell by Ramón y Cajal. Center: Table giving the distribution of ionic conductances in somatic and dendritic regions. At the soma a set of conductances (gNa and gk) generating fast action potentials may be observed. In addition, a strongly inactivated Ca2+ conductance is present, which produces rebound spikes, as seen in (B) [gCa (somatic)]. Also recorded at the soma is a large Ca2+-dependent dendritic spike [gCa (dendtritic)] that generates the afterdepolarization and the powerful, long-lasting afterhypolarization, which is produced by a Ca2+-dependent K+ conductance [gK(Ca)]. In addition, a voltage-dependent K+ conductance (gK) seems to be present in the dendrites. Right A: Rebound spikes in the inferior olivary neuron (arrow) following blockage of the Na spike with tetrodotoxin (TTX). Right B: Summary of the ionic conductances that generate single-cell oscillations in neurons of the inferior olive.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
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Figure 5: Ionic conductances and the mechanism for oscillation in inferior olivary cells. Left: Drawing of an inferior olivary cell by Ramón y Cajal. Center: Table giving the distribution of ionic conductances in somatic and dendritic regions. At the soma a set of conductances (gNa and gk) generating fast action potentials may be observed. In addition, a strongly inactivated Ca2+ conductance is present, which produces rebound spikes, as seen in (B) [gCa (somatic)]. Also recorded at the soma is a large Ca2+-dependent dendritic spike [gCa (dendtritic)] that generates the afterdepolarization and the powerful, long-lasting afterhypolarization, which is produced by a Ca2+-dependent K+ conductance [gK(Ca)]. In addition, a voltage-dependent K+ conductance (gK) seems to be present in the dendrites. Right A: Rebound spikes in the inferior olivary neuron (arrow) following blockage of the Na spike with tetrodotoxin (TTX). Right B: Summary of the ionic conductances that generate single-cell oscillations in neurons of the inferior olive.
Mentions: Cells of the inferior olivary nucleus have also been shown to have dendritic and somatic conductances underlying an intrinsic electrophysiological profile. Indeed, in vitro experiments using brainstem slices (Llinás and Yarom, 1981, 1986) first demonstrated that IO neurons have a set of voltage-gated ionic conductances that give these cells intrinsic oscillatory properties (Figure 5). Thus, the firing of IO cells is characterized by an initial fast-rising action potential (a somatic sodium spike), which is prolonged to 10–15 ms by an afterdepolarization (a Ca2+-dependent dendritic spike).

Bottom Line: This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons.It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function.The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY, USA.

ABSTRACT
This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

No MeSH data available.