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Self-(in)compatibility genotypes of Moroccan apricots indicate differences and similarities in the crop history of European and North African apricot germplasm.

Kodad O, Hegedűs A, Socias i Company R, Halász J - BMC Plant Biol. (2013)

Bottom Line: In otherwise self-incompatible Prunus species, the emergence of loss-of-function in S-haplotypes has resulted in self-compatibility.North Africa seems to have preserved much higher variability of apricot as compared with Europe.The loss of genetic diversity in apricot might be explained by the occurrence of self-compatibility and the length of time that apricot has spent with this breeding system in an environment without its wild relatives, such as the Moroccan oases or Central Europe.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Département d'Arboriculture, École Nationale d'Agriculture de Meknès, BP S/40, Meknès, Morocco. osama.kodad@yahoo.es.

ABSTRACT

Background: Allelic diversity of the S-locus is attributed to the genetic relationships among genotypes and sexual reproduction strategy. In otherwise self-incompatible Prunus species, the emergence of loss-of-function in S-haplotypes has resulted in self-compatibility. This information may allow following major stages of crop history. The genetic diversity in the S-locus of local apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) from different oasis ecosystems in Morocco and the comparison of the occurrence and frequency of S-alleles with other regions may allow testing the validity of previous theories on the origin and dissemination of North African apricots.

Results: The S-genotypes of 55 Moroccan apricot accessions were determined, resulting in 37 self-compatible genotypes, from which 33 were homozygotes for self-compatibility. SC was the most frequent S-allele in this germplasm, followed by S13, S7, S11, S2, S20, S8, and S6. New approaches (CAPS or allele-specific PCR) were designed for a reliable verification of the rare or unexpected alleles. The frequency and distribution of the S-alleles differed among the oases. Some of these alleles, S8, S11, S13 and S20, were formerly detected only in the Irano Caucasian germplasm and are not present in Europe.

Conclusions: Our data supports the Irano-Caucasian origin of the Moroccan apricots and their original introduction by Phoenicians and Arabs through the North African shore. North Africa seems to have preserved much higher variability of apricot as compared with Europe. The loss of genetic diversity in apricot might be explained by the occurrence of self-compatibility and the length of time that apricot has spent with this breeding system in an environment without its wild relatives, such as the Moroccan oases or Central Europe.

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PCR products (in negative) in 55 Moroccan apricot accessions using the second intron consensus primers of Prunus S-RNase gene. M: 1 kb?+?DNA ladder; numbers refer to samples shown in Table 1.
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Figure 1: PCR products (in negative) in 55 Moroccan apricot accessions using the second intron consensus primers of Prunus S-RNase gene. M: 1 kb?+?DNA ladder; numbers refer to samples shown in Table 1.

Mentions: Determination of the S-genotypes of 55 Moroccan apricot accessions was carried out using the consensus primers for the first and second introns of the S-RNase gene. The sizes of the PCR products obtained were compared with those previously published [13,27]. PCR amplification of genomic DNA with the consensus primers designed from conserved coding regions flanking the second intron of apricot S-RNases, yielded two fragments of various sizes in 12 genotypes, just one band in 40 genotypes, and no fragment in three genotypes (Figure 1; Table 1).


Self-(in)compatibility genotypes of Moroccan apricots indicate differences and similarities in the crop history of European and North African apricot germplasm.

Kodad O, Hegedűs A, Socias i Company R, Halász J - BMC Plant Biol. (2013)

PCR products (in negative) in 55 Moroccan apricot accessions using the second intron consensus primers of Prunus S-RNase gene. M: 1 kb?+?DNA ladder; numbers refer to samples shown in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219384&req=5

Figure 1: PCR products (in negative) in 55 Moroccan apricot accessions using the second intron consensus primers of Prunus S-RNase gene. M: 1 kb?+?DNA ladder; numbers refer to samples shown in Table 1.
Mentions: Determination of the S-genotypes of 55 Moroccan apricot accessions was carried out using the consensus primers for the first and second introns of the S-RNase gene. The sizes of the PCR products obtained were compared with those previously published [13,27]. PCR amplification of genomic DNA with the consensus primers designed from conserved coding regions flanking the second intron of apricot S-RNases, yielded two fragments of various sizes in 12 genotypes, just one band in 40 genotypes, and no fragment in three genotypes (Figure 1; Table 1).

Bottom Line: In otherwise self-incompatible Prunus species, the emergence of loss-of-function in S-haplotypes has resulted in self-compatibility.North Africa seems to have preserved much higher variability of apricot as compared with Europe.The loss of genetic diversity in apricot might be explained by the occurrence of self-compatibility and the length of time that apricot has spent with this breeding system in an environment without its wild relatives, such as the Moroccan oases or Central Europe.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Département d'Arboriculture, École Nationale d'Agriculture de Meknès, BP S/40, Meknès, Morocco. osama.kodad@yahoo.es.

ABSTRACT

Background: Allelic diversity of the S-locus is attributed to the genetic relationships among genotypes and sexual reproduction strategy. In otherwise self-incompatible Prunus species, the emergence of loss-of-function in S-haplotypes has resulted in self-compatibility. This information may allow following major stages of crop history. The genetic diversity in the S-locus of local apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) from different oasis ecosystems in Morocco and the comparison of the occurrence and frequency of S-alleles with other regions may allow testing the validity of previous theories on the origin and dissemination of North African apricots.

Results: The S-genotypes of 55 Moroccan apricot accessions were determined, resulting in 37 self-compatible genotypes, from which 33 were homozygotes for self-compatibility. SC was the most frequent S-allele in this germplasm, followed by S13, S7, S11, S2, S20, S8, and S6. New approaches (CAPS or allele-specific PCR) were designed for a reliable verification of the rare or unexpected alleles. The frequency and distribution of the S-alleles differed among the oases. Some of these alleles, S8, S11, S13 and S20, were formerly detected only in the Irano Caucasian germplasm and are not present in Europe.

Conclusions: Our data supports the Irano-Caucasian origin of the Moroccan apricots and their original introduction by Phoenicians and Arabs through the North African shore. North Africa seems to have preserved much higher variability of apricot as compared with Europe. The loss of genetic diversity in apricot might be explained by the occurrence of self-compatibility and the length of time that apricot has spent with this breeding system in an environment without its wild relatives, such as the Moroccan oases or Central Europe.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus