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Attitudes and defaults save lives and protect the environment jointly and compensatorily: understanding the behavioral efficacy of nudges and other structural interventions.

Kaiser FG, Arnold O, Otto S - Behav Sci (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: We argue for a conceptual understanding of individual behavior that views personal attitudes and behavioral costs as its two separate compensatorily effective determinants.Behavioral costs in turn reflect the structural boundary conditions that are relevant as obstructive and/or supportive environmental forces that generically affect a specific behavior.So far, our research on people's attitudes toward environmental protection has demonstrated that the Campbell paradigm-and thus its conceptual account of individual behavior-holds true for approximately 95% of the people in a given society.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Otto-von-Guericke University, P.O. Box 4120, Magdeburg D-39016, Germany; E-Mails: oliver.arnold@ovgu.de (O.A.); siegmar.otto@ovgu.de (S.O.).

ABSTRACT
A better understanding of when and why nudges (e.g., defaults, visibility or accessibility alterations) and other structural behavior-change measures work or fail can help avoid subsequent surprises such as unexpected political opposition. In this paper, we challenge the unilateral focus on structural interventions-which seemingly control people's behavioral decisions-as such a focus ignores the flipside-namely, attitudes or, as they are called in economics, preferences. We argue for a conceptual understanding of individual behavior that views personal attitudes and behavioral costs as its two separate compensatorily effective determinants. This classical understanding was reintroduced into attitude research as the Campbell paradigm. In the logic of the Campbell paradigm, a person's attitude becomes obvious in the face of the behavioral costs the person surmounts. Technically, individual attitudes reveal themselves in a set of cost-dependent transitively ordered performances. Behavioral costs in turn reflect the structural boundary conditions that are relevant as obstructive and/or supportive environmental forces that generically affect a specific behavior. So far, our research on people's attitudes toward environmental protection has demonstrated that the Campbell paradigm-and thus its conceptual account of individual behavior-holds true for approximately 95% of the people in a given society.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Remoteness-dependent acceptance of nature-preserve-related restrictions (NIMBY) moderated by people’s attitudes toward environmental protection (i.e., environmental attitude). Vertical bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.
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behavsci-04-00202-f002: Remoteness-dependent acceptance of nature-preserve-related restrictions (NIMBY) moderated by people’s attitudes toward environmental protection (i.e., environmental attitude). Vertical bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.

Mentions: In another study, we explored the NIMBY—not-in-my-backyard—phenomenon (see [22]). NIMBY indicates that people are better prepared to accept the restrictions and regulations (i.e., costs) that come with nature preserves the further they live from any preserve. When not at risk of being affected—by living more than 30 kilometers from any preserve—people generally accept the related restrictions (i.e., costs) unless they have comparatively weak attitudes toward environmental protection. When at risk of being affected—with increasing behavioral costs—restrictions are accepted with progressively increasing environmental-protection attitudes. Hence, people who are affected by restrictions need rather pronounced environmental-protection attitudes to accept preserve restrictions to an extent that is similar to those of people who are not at risk of being affected (see Figure 2).


Attitudes and defaults save lives and protect the environment jointly and compensatorily: understanding the behavioral efficacy of nudges and other structural interventions.

Kaiser FG, Arnold O, Otto S - Behav Sci (Basel) (2014)

Remoteness-dependent acceptance of nature-preserve-related restrictions (NIMBY) moderated by people’s attitudes toward environmental protection (i.e., environmental attitude). Vertical bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4219263&req=5

behavsci-04-00202-f002: Remoteness-dependent acceptance of nature-preserve-related restrictions (NIMBY) moderated by people’s attitudes toward environmental protection (i.e., environmental attitude). Vertical bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.
Mentions: In another study, we explored the NIMBY—not-in-my-backyard—phenomenon (see [22]). NIMBY indicates that people are better prepared to accept the restrictions and regulations (i.e., costs) that come with nature preserves the further they live from any preserve. When not at risk of being affected—by living more than 30 kilometers from any preserve—people generally accept the related restrictions (i.e., costs) unless they have comparatively weak attitudes toward environmental protection. When at risk of being affected—with increasing behavioral costs—restrictions are accepted with progressively increasing environmental-protection attitudes. Hence, people who are affected by restrictions need rather pronounced environmental-protection attitudes to accept preserve restrictions to an extent that is similar to those of people who are not at risk of being affected (see Figure 2).

Bottom Line: We argue for a conceptual understanding of individual behavior that views personal attitudes and behavioral costs as its two separate compensatorily effective determinants.Behavioral costs in turn reflect the structural boundary conditions that are relevant as obstructive and/or supportive environmental forces that generically affect a specific behavior.So far, our research on people's attitudes toward environmental protection has demonstrated that the Campbell paradigm-and thus its conceptual account of individual behavior-holds true for approximately 95% of the people in a given society.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Otto-von-Guericke University, P.O. Box 4120, Magdeburg D-39016, Germany; E-Mails: oliver.arnold@ovgu.de (O.A.); siegmar.otto@ovgu.de (S.O.).

ABSTRACT
A better understanding of when and why nudges (e.g., defaults, visibility or accessibility alterations) and other structural behavior-change measures work or fail can help avoid subsequent surprises such as unexpected political opposition. In this paper, we challenge the unilateral focus on structural interventions-which seemingly control people's behavioral decisions-as such a focus ignores the flipside-namely, attitudes or, as they are called in economics, preferences. We argue for a conceptual understanding of individual behavior that views personal attitudes and behavioral costs as its two separate compensatorily effective determinants. This classical understanding was reintroduced into attitude research as the Campbell paradigm. In the logic of the Campbell paradigm, a person's attitude becomes obvious in the face of the behavioral costs the person surmounts. Technically, individual attitudes reveal themselves in a set of cost-dependent transitively ordered performances. Behavioral costs in turn reflect the structural boundary conditions that are relevant as obstructive and/or supportive environmental forces that generically affect a specific behavior. So far, our research on people's attitudes toward environmental protection has demonstrated that the Campbell paradigm-and thus its conceptual account of individual behavior-holds true for approximately 95% of the people in a given society.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus