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Discrimination within Recognition Memory in Schizophrenia.

McGuire KA, Blahnik MM, Sponheim SR - Behav Sci (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit.Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d') to consider false recognition of new items.Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA; E-Mails: Melanie.Blahnik@va.gov (M.M.B.); sponh001@umn.edu (S.R.S.) ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, F282/2A West, 2450 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.

ABSTRACT
Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d') to consider false recognition of new items. Using the Recurring Figures Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), we studied a sample of schizophrenia probands and the first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, as well as probands with bipolar disorder and first-degree biological relatives to assess the specificity of recognition memory dysfunction to schizophrenia. The schizophrenia sample had poorer recognition discrimination in both nonverbal and verbal modalities; no such deficits were identified in first-degree biological relatives or bipolar disorder probands. Discrimination in schizophrenia and bipolar probands failed to benefit from the geometric structure in the designs in the manner that controls did on the nonverbal test. Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs. Episodic memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is present for a variety of stimulus domains and reflects poor use of item content to increase discrimination of old and new items.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean d' across Trials 2–6 and delayed trials (7–8) for the Recurring Figures Test for probands with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as nonpsychiatric controls. Schizophrenia probands were significantly lower in recognition discrimination (d') compared to bipolar disorder and control probands, and performance on Trial 2 was significantly lower than other trials. There was no interaction of group and trial number.
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behavsci-03-00273-f001: Mean d' across Trials 2–6 and delayed trials (7–8) for the Recurring Figures Test for probands with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as nonpsychiatric controls. Schizophrenia probands were significantly lower in recognition discrimination (d') compared to bipolar disorder and control probands, and performance on Trial 2 was significantly lower than other trials. There was no interaction of group and trial number.

Mentions: Comparisons of d´ between proband groups and nonpsychiatric controls on the Recurring Figures Test resulted in significant effects for time delay, F(1, 129) = 8.32, p = 0.005, and group, F(2, 129) = 6.11, p = 0.003. Follow-up analyses for both the immediate (Trials 2–6) and delayed (Trials 7–8) conditions yielded group effects for both immediate recognition, F(2, 132) = 5.21, p < 0.001, and delayed recognition, F(2, 132) = 13.44, p < 0.001. In both conditions, probands with schizophrenia obtained significantly lower d´ scores than nonpsychiatric controls and probands with bipolar disorder, while the bipolar disorder probands did not differ from controls. For the time delay main effect, paired t-tests revealed that d´ for the delayed recognition condition for all participants was higher than d´ for the immediate recognition condition, t(134) = 2.53, p = 0.012. This difference in d´ scores between immediate and delayed conditions likely reflects the benefits of increased exposure to the eight stimulus designs across eight trials (e.g., earlier trials with lower d´ scores pulled down the average mean for the immediate recognition condition). To explore this finding, d´ was calculated individually for Trials 2 through 6. Figure 1 shows the mean d´ growth curve for Trials 2–6 and the delayed trials (7–8). Paired samples t-tests comparing mean d´ for Trials 2–6 with groups collapsed, demonstrating that mean d´ for Trial 2 was lower than that of Trials 3–6, with p < 0.001 across all comparisons; Trials 3–6 did not differ from each other. Repeated-measures ANOVA did not yield significant interaction between group and trial, suggesting similar growth curves across the three groups.


Discrimination within Recognition Memory in Schizophrenia.

McGuire KA, Blahnik MM, Sponheim SR - Behav Sci (Basel) (2013)

Mean d' across Trials 2–6 and delayed trials (7–8) for the Recurring Figures Test for probands with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as nonpsychiatric controls. Schizophrenia probands were significantly lower in recognition discrimination (d') compared to bipolar disorder and control probands, and performance on Trial 2 was significantly lower than other trials. There was no interaction of group and trial number.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4217626&req=5

behavsci-03-00273-f001: Mean d' across Trials 2–6 and delayed trials (7–8) for the Recurring Figures Test for probands with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as nonpsychiatric controls. Schizophrenia probands were significantly lower in recognition discrimination (d') compared to bipolar disorder and control probands, and performance on Trial 2 was significantly lower than other trials. There was no interaction of group and trial number.
Mentions: Comparisons of d´ between proband groups and nonpsychiatric controls on the Recurring Figures Test resulted in significant effects for time delay, F(1, 129) = 8.32, p = 0.005, and group, F(2, 129) = 6.11, p = 0.003. Follow-up analyses for both the immediate (Trials 2–6) and delayed (Trials 7–8) conditions yielded group effects for both immediate recognition, F(2, 132) = 5.21, p < 0.001, and delayed recognition, F(2, 132) = 13.44, p < 0.001. In both conditions, probands with schizophrenia obtained significantly lower d´ scores than nonpsychiatric controls and probands with bipolar disorder, while the bipolar disorder probands did not differ from controls. For the time delay main effect, paired t-tests revealed that d´ for the delayed recognition condition for all participants was higher than d´ for the immediate recognition condition, t(134) = 2.53, p = 0.012. This difference in d´ scores between immediate and delayed conditions likely reflects the benefits of increased exposure to the eight stimulus designs across eight trials (e.g., earlier trials with lower d´ scores pulled down the average mean for the immediate recognition condition). To explore this finding, d´ was calculated individually for Trials 2 through 6. Figure 1 shows the mean d´ growth curve for Trials 2–6 and the delayed trials (7–8). Paired samples t-tests comparing mean d´ for Trials 2–6 with groups collapsed, demonstrating that mean d´ for Trial 2 was lower than that of Trials 3–6, with p < 0.001 across all comparisons; Trials 3–6 did not differ from each other. Repeated-measures ANOVA did not yield significant interaction between group and trial, suggesting similar growth curves across the three groups.

Bottom Line: First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit.Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d') to consider false recognition of new items.Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA; E-Mails: Melanie.Blahnik@va.gov (M.M.B.); sponh001@umn.edu (S.R.S.) ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, F282/2A West, 2450 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.

ABSTRACT
Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d') to consider false recognition of new items. Using the Recurring Figures Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), we studied a sample of schizophrenia probands and the first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, as well as probands with bipolar disorder and first-degree biological relatives to assess the specificity of recognition memory dysfunction to schizophrenia. The schizophrenia sample had poorer recognition discrimination in both nonverbal and verbal modalities; no such deficits were identified in first-degree biological relatives or bipolar disorder probands. Discrimination in schizophrenia and bipolar probands failed to benefit from the geometric structure in the designs in the manner that controls did on the nonverbal test. Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs. Episodic memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is present for a variety of stimulus domains and reflects poor use of item content to increase discrimination of old and new items.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus