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Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge.

Gancarz-Kausch AM, Adank DN, Dietz DM - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation.Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models.However, using a histamine punishment procedure that greatly suppresses drug-taking behavior, we demonstrate that longer periods of abstinence from cocaine induce a greater persistence in responding for drug in the face of negative consequences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology &Toxicology; Research Institute on Addictions, Program of Neuroscience, University at Buffalo, Buffalo New York 14214, USA.

ABSTRACT
Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation. Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models. To investigate the effect of withdrawal on cocaine relapse, rats were exposed to extended-access cocaine self-administration and subjected to either 1 or 30 d of withdrawal. When tested during 12 h unlimited access to cocaine (binge), the duration of the withdrawal did not influence cocaine intake. However, using a histamine punishment procedure that greatly suppresses drug-taking behavior, we demonstrate that longer periods of abstinence from cocaine induce a greater persistence in responding for drug in the face of negative consequences.

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Cocaine self-administration binge.(a) Average number of infusions, (b) cumulative dose, (c) average number of hourly infusions, (d) cumulative hourly dose during the 12-h-binge (e) correlation of prior self-administration and binge cocaine performance after 1 d and (f) 30 d of withdrawal, and (g) number of non-reinforced active responses during the 12-h-binge following 1 d (1 WD; cocaine n = 12, saline n = 8) or 30 d (30 WD; cocaine n = 15, n = 6) of withdrawal. Black bars represent animals self-administering cocaine, white bars represent animals self-administering saline. Data are expressed as the average ± standard error; *P < 0.05 vs. 1 WD.
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f3: Cocaine self-administration binge.(a) Average number of infusions, (b) cumulative dose, (c) average number of hourly infusions, (d) cumulative hourly dose during the 12-h-binge (e) correlation of prior self-administration and binge cocaine performance after 1 d and (f) 30 d of withdrawal, and (g) number of non-reinforced active responses during the 12-h-binge following 1 d (1 WD; cocaine n = 12, saline n = 8) or 30 d (30 WD; cocaine n = 15, n = 6) of withdrawal. Black bars represent animals self-administering cocaine, white bars represent animals self-administering saline. Data are expressed as the average ± standard error; *P < 0.05 vs. 1 WD.

Mentions: A two-factor ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of drug on the number of infusions self-administered during a 12-h-binge (F [1, 40] = 92.011; P < 0.001). In animals with a history of cocaine, there was no significant difference between the withdrawal groups in the number of infusions (Fig. 3a) or the cumulative dose of cocaine received (Fig. 3b). In addition, no significant effect of withdrawal period was observed following a history of saline.


Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge.

Gancarz-Kausch AM, Adank DN, Dietz DM - Sci Rep (2014)

Cocaine self-administration binge.(a) Average number of infusions, (b) cumulative dose, (c) average number of hourly infusions, (d) cumulative hourly dose during the 12-h-binge (e) correlation of prior self-administration and binge cocaine performance after 1 d and (f) 30 d of withdrawal, and (g) number of non-reinforced active responses during the 12-h-binge following 1 d (1 WD; cocaine n = 12, saline n = 8) or 30 d (30 WD; cocaine n = 15, n = 6) of withdrawal. Black bars represent animals self-administering cocaine, white bars represent animals self-administering saline. Data are expressed as the average ± standard error; *P < 0.05 vs. 1 WD.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4217113&req=5

f3: Cocaine self-administration binge.(a) Average number of infusions, (b) cumulative dose, (c) average number of hourly infusions, (d) cumulative hourly dose during the 12-h-binge (e) correlation of prior self-administration and binge cocaine performance after 1 d and (f) 30 d of withdrawal, and (g) number of non-reinforced active responses during the 12-h-binge following 1 d (1 WD; cocaine n = 12, saline n = 8) or 30 d (30 WD; cocaine n = 15, n = 6) of withdrawal. Black bars represent animals self-administering cocaine, white bars represent animals self-administering saline. Data are expressed as the average ± standard error; *P < 0.05 vs. 1 WD.
Mentions: A two-factor ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of drug on the number of infusions self-administered during a 12-h-binge (F [1, 40] = 92.011; P < 0.001). In animals with a history of cocaine, there was no significant difference between the withdrawal groups in the number of infusions (Fig. 3a) or the cumulative dose of cocaine received (Fig. 3b). In addition, no significant effect of withdrawal period was observed following a history of saline.

Bottom Line: Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation.Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models.However, using a histamine punishment procedure that greatly suppresses drug-taking behavior, we demonstrate that longer periods of abstinence from cocaine induce a greater persistence in responding for drug in the face of negative consequences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology &Toxicology; Research Institute on Addictions, Program of Neuroscience, University at Buffalo, Buffalo New York 14214, USA.

ABSTRACT
Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation. Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models. To investigate the effect of withdrawal on cocaine relapse, rats were exposed to extended-access cocaine self-administration and subjected to either 1 or 30 d of withdrawal. When tested during 12 h unlimited access to cocaine (binge), the duration of the withdrawal did not influence cocaine intake. However, using a histamine punishment procedure that greatly suppresses drug-taking behavior, we demonstrate that longer periods of abstinence from cocaine induce a greater persistence in responding for drug in the face of negative consequences.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus