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A novel N-input voting algorithm for X-by-wire fault-tolerant systems.

Karimi A, Zarafshan F, Al-Haddad SA, Ramli AR - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: Voting is an important operation in multichannel computation paradigm and realization of ultrareliable and real-time control systems that arbitrates among the results of N redundant variants.Depending on the characteristics of the application and the type of selected voter, the voting algorithms can be implemented for either hardware or software systems.Then, its behavior has been software implemented in different scenarios of error-injection on the system inputs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Markazi, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Voting is an important operation in multichannel computation paradigm and realization of ultrareliable and real-time control systems that arbitrates among the results of N redundant variants. These systems include N-modular redundant (NMR) hardware systems and diversely designed software systems based on N-version programming (NVP). Depending on the characteristics of the application and the type of selected voter, the voting algorithms can be implemented for either hardware or software systems. In this paper, a novel voting algorithm is introduced for real-time fault-tolerant control systems, appropriate for applications in which N is large. Then, its behavior has been software implemented in different scenarios of error-injection on the system inputs. The results of analyzed evaluations through plots and statistical computations have demonstrated that this novel algorithm does not have the limitations of some popular voting algorithms such as median and weighted; moreover, it is able to significantly increase the reliability and availability of the system in the best case to 2489.7% and 626.74%, respectively, and in the worst case to 3.84% and 1.55%, respectively.

Show MeSH
The percentage of correct agreements (reliability) of voting algorithms for (a) M = 2 and (b) M = 8.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig5: The percentage of correct agreements (reliability) of voting algorithms for (a) M = 2 and (b) M = 8.

Mentions: We did not only rely on the simulation results presented in Section 4.2.1 and for more clarification of the results, the cases where M is constant are also considered. The simulation results of M-out-of-N and advanced M-out-of-N algorithms in exact and inexact cases, for M = 2 and M = 8, have been presented in Figures 4 and 5. The availability of voting algorithms for M = 2 when N = 4,…,128 and M = 8 when N = 8,…,128 is, respectively, illustrated in Figures 4(a) and 4(b). The comparisons show that the availability of the new algorithm for M = 2 has improved to 9.15% and 1.55%, respectively, in exact and inexact schemes. Similarly, in new algorithm, the availability has increased in exact and inexact schemes to 57.21% and 23.99%, respectively. However, this increase is more tangible for M = 8.


A novel N-input voting algorithm for X-by-wire fault-tolerant systems.

Karimi A, Zarafshan F, Al-Haddad SA, Ramli AR - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

The percentage of correct agreements (reliability) of voting algorithms for (a) M = 2 and (b) M = 8.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4216716&req=5

fig5: The percentage of correct agreements (reliability) of voting algorithms for (a) M = 2 and (b) M = 8.
Mentions: We did not only rely on the simulation results presented in Section 4.2.1 and for more clarification of the results, the cases where M is constant are also considered. The simulation results of M-out-of-N and advanced M-out-of-N algorithms in exact and inexact cases, for M = 2 and M = 8, have been presented in Figures 4 and 5. The availability of voting algorithms for M = 2 when N = 4,…,128 and M = 8 when N = 8,…,128 is, respectively, illustrated in Figures 4(a) and 4(b). The comparisons show that the availability of the new algorithm for M = 2 has improved to 9.15% and 1.55%, respectively, in exact and inexact schemes. Similarly, in new algorithm, the availability has increased in exact and inexact schemes to 57.21% and 23.99%, respectively. However, this increase is more tangible for M = 8.

Bottom Line: Voting is an important operation in multichannel computation paradigm and realization of ultrareliable and real-time control systems that arbitrates among the results of N redundant variants.Depending on the characteristics of the application and the type of selected voter, the voting algorithms can be implemented for either hardware or software systems.Then, its behavior has been software implemented in different scenarios of error-injection on the system inputs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Markazi, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Voting is an important operation in multichannel computation paradigm and realization of ultrareliable and real-time control systems that arbitrates among the results of N redundant variants. These systems include N-modular redundant (NMR) hardware systems and diversely designed software systems based on N-version programming (NVP). Depending on the characteristics of the application and the type of selected voter, the voting algorithms can be implemented for either hardware or software systems. In this paper, a novel voting algorithm is introduced for real-time fault-tolerant control systems, appropriate for applications in which N is large. Then, its behavior has been software implemented in different scenarios of error-injection on the system inputs. The results of analyzed evaluations through plots and statistical computations have demonstrated that this novel algorithm does not have the limitations of some popular voting algorithms such as median and weighted; moreover, it is able to significantly increase the reliability and availability of the system in the best case to 2489.7% and 626.74%, respectively, and in the worst case to 3.84% and 1.55%, respectively.

Show MeSH