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Identification of larvicide-resistant catch basins from three years of larvicide trials in a suburb of chicago, IL.

Harbison JE, Sinacore JM, Henry M, Xamplas C, Dugas LR, Ruiz MO - Environ Health Insights (2014)

Bottom Line: The tens of thousands of catch basins found in many urban areas are a primary target of local vector control agencies for seasonal application of extended-release larvicides.A concern with using larvicides in these structures is that active ingredients can be hampered by high flows, debris, and sediment, all of which are common to these structures.As such a certain proportion of basins may be "resistant" to larvicide treatments due to site specific characteristics that may promote these and other factors that hinder larvicide action and/or promote mosquito infestation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA. ; North Shore Mosquito Abatement District, Northfield, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
The tens of thousands of catch basins found in many urban areas are a primary target of local vector control agencies for seasonal application of extended-release larvicides. A concern with using larvicides in these structures is that active ingredients can be hampered by high flows, debris, and sediment, all of which are common to these structures. As such a certain proportion of basins may be "resistant" to larvicide treatments due to site specific characteristics that may promote these and other factors that hinder larvicide action and/or promote mosquito infestation. Analyses from three years of larvicide efficacy trials suggest that over a quarter of basins in the study area may not be receiving adequate protection from a single dose of larvicide that is routinely applied. Implications of increasing the dose and/or toxicity of larvicide treatments are discussed further.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative location of 48 curbside catch basins monitored for mosquitoes by weekly dip samples over the course of June–September 2011, 2012, and 2013 for larvicide efficacy trials in a suburb north of the City of Chicago and their assigned categories based on average dip samples with and without larvicide treatment.Notes: Dotted lines denote the division between the three groups of catch basins utilized in 2011 and 2012. *All catch basins were cleaned once mid-season in 2011 via vacuum-mounted Vactor truck except for four highlighted by rectangle.
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f1-ehi-suppl.2-2014-001: Relative location of 48 curbside catch basins monitored for mosquitoes by weekly dip samples over the course of June–September 2011, 2012, and 2013 for larvicide efficacy trials in a suburb north of the City of Chicago and their assigned categories based on average dip samples with and without larvicide treatment.Notes: Dotted lines denote the division between the three groups of catch basins utilized in 2011 and 2012. *All catch basins were cleaned once mid-season in 2011 via vacuum-mounted Vactor truck except for four highlighted by rectangle.

Mentions: We then placed 48 of the 60 basins into one of five categories based on apparent “innate” productivity relative to their response to the treatments applied (Fig. 1). Ten of the 60 were not included in this analysis as there were no treated dip samples from these basins. Two others, each having only four dip samples without treatment, were also not included in this categorization. The first category was “treatment ineffective.” This included 13 (27.1%) of the 48 basins where treated samples appeared to have produced mosquitoes at a rate equal to or higher than untreated samples. In addition, the average of all dip samples from treated basins in this initial category was higher than the three years average of 6.6 mosquitoes for all treated basins (Figs. 1 and 2). In one basin, there appeared to be no difference in untreated and treated samples but both were lower than the 6.6 overall average. This basin was classified as “treatment ineffective but low infestation” (Fig. 3). In the remaining 34 basins, treatment appeared to be effective, defined by the observation that treated samples appeared to be lower than untreated samples. Eight of these “treatment effective” basins had average counts lower than the 6.6 average in both treated and untreated samples and were classified as “treatment effective – low infestation.” Two other “Treatment effective” basins were identified as “treatment effective – severe infestation” (Fig. 3). In these, the averages of dip samples during treatment were less than the averages from untreated samples but were higher than the 10.9 average for all untreated samples over the three years of study (22.9 and 23.35 mosquitoes per dip, respectively).


Identification of larvicide-resistant catch basins from three years of larvicide trials in a suburb of chicago, IL.

Harbison JE, Sinacore JM, Henry M, Xamplas C, Dugas LR, Ruiz MO - Environ Health Insights (2014)

Relative location of 48 curbside catch basins monitored for mosquitoes by weekly dip samples over the course of June–September 2011, 2012, and 2013 for larvicide efficacy trials in a suburb north of the City of Chicago and their assigned categories based on average dip samples with and without larvicide treatment.Notes: Dotted lines denote the division between the three groups of catch basins utilized in 2011 and 2012. *All catch basins were cleaned once mid-season in 2011 via vacuum-mounted Vactor truck except for four highlighted by rectangle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4216650&req=5

f1-ehi-suppl.2-2014-001: Relative location of 48 curbside catch basins monitored for mosquitoes by weekly dip samples over the course of June–September 2011, 2012, and 2013 for larvicide efficacy trials in a suburb north of the City of Chicago and their assigned categories based on average dip samples with and without larvicide treatment.Notes: Dotted lines denote the division between the three groups of catch basins utilized in 2011 and 2012. *All catch basins were cleaned once mid-season in 2011 via vacuum-mounted Vactor truck except for four highlighted by rectangle.
Mentions: We then placed 48 of the 60 basins into one of five categories based on apparent “innate” productivity relative to their response to the treatments applied (Fig. 1). Ten of the 60 were not included in this analysis as there were no treated dip samples from these basins. Two others, each having only four dip samples without treatment, were also not included in this categorization. The first category was “treatment ineffective.” This included 13 (27.1%) of the 48 basins where treated samples appeared to have produced mosquitoes at a rate equal to or higher than untreated samples. In addition, the average of all dip samples from treated basins in this initial category was higher than the three years average of 6.6 mosquitoes for all treated basins (Figs. 1 and 2). In one basin, there appeared to be no difference in untreated and treated samples but both were lower than the 6.6 overall average. This basin was classified as “treatment ineffective but low infestation” (Fig. 3). In the remaining 34 basins, treatment appeared to be effective, defined by the observation that treated samples appeared to be lower than untreated samples. Eight of these “treatment effective” basins had average counts lower than the 6.6 average in both treated and untreated samples and were classified as “treatment effective – low infestation.” Two other “Treatment effective” basins were identified as “treatment effective – severe infestation” (Fig. 3). In these, the averages of dip samples during treatment were less than the averages from untreated samples but were higher than the 10.9 average for all untreated samples over the three years of study (22.9 and 23.35 mosquitoes per dip, respectively).

Bottom Line: The tens of thousands of catch basins found in many urban areas are a primary target of local vector control agencies for seasonal application of extended-release larvicides.A concern with using larvicides in these structures is that active ingredients can be hampered by high flows, debris, and sediment, all of which are common to these structures.As such a certain proportion of basins may be "resistant" to larvicide treatments due to site specific characteristics that may promote these and other factors that hinder larvicide action and/or promote mosquito infestation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA. ; North Shore Mosquito Abatement District, Northfield, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
The tens of thousands of catch basins found in many urban areas are a primary target of local vector control agencies for seasonal application of extended-release larvicides. A concern with using larvicides in these structures is that active ingredients can be hampered by high flows, debris, and sediment, all of which are common to these structures. As such a certain proportion of basins may be "resistant" to larvicide treatments due to site specific characteristics that may promote these and other factors that hinder larvicide action and/or promote mosquito infestation. Analyses from three years of larvicide efficacy trials suggest that over a quarter of basins in the study area may not be receiving adequate protection from a single dose of larvicide that is routinely applied. Implications of increasing the dose and/or toxicity of larvicide treatments are discussed further.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus