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Maternal protein-energy malnutrition during early pregnancy in sheep impacts the fetal ornithine cycle to reduce fetal kidney microvascular development.

Dunford LJ, Sinclair KD, Kwong WY, Sturrock C, Clifford BL, Giles TC, Gardner DS - FASEB J. (2014)

Bottom Line: PEM had little measureable effect on maternal and fetal macronutrient balance (glucose, total protein, total amino acids, and lactate were unaffected) or on fetal growth.PEM decreased maternal and fetal urea concentration, which blunted fetal ornithine availability and affected fetal hepatic polyamine production.For the first time in a large animal model, we associated these nutritional effects with reduced micro- but not macrovascular development in the fetal kidney.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Ewes fed LP diet have reduced plasma urea, but other biomarkers of nutritional status are increased. Glucose (A), lactate (A), NEFA (C), triglyceride (D), total protein (E), albumin (F), β-hydroxybutyrate (G), and urea (H) samples were obtained prior to pregnancy (d 0′) and at d 28 and 65 of gestation and were analyzed on a Randox Rx-Imola bioanalyzer. Data are means ± estimated sem for ewes fed a CP diet (n=15; open symbols) or an LP diet (n=16; solid symbols) during early gestation (d 0–65, term ∼145 d). Data were analyzed by the general linear model for the fixed effect of diet, with time included as a repeated measure, and the interaction term (diet×time) using Genstat 15. NS, nonsignificant; NEFA, nonesterified fatty acid. aP < 0.05 vs. d 0. bP < 0.05 vs. control group.
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Figure 1: Ewes fed LP diet have reduced plasma urea, but other biomarkers of nutritional status are increased. Glucose (A), lactate (A), NEFA (C), triglyceride (D), total protein (E), albumin (F), β-hydroxybutyrate (G), and urea (H) samples were obtained prior to pregnancy (d 0′) and at d 28 and 65 of gestation and were analyzed on a Randox Rx-Imola bioanalyzer. Data are means ± estimated sem for ewes fed a CP diet (n=15; open symbols) or an LP diet (n=16; solid symbols) during early gestation (d 0–65, term ∼145 d). Data were analyzed by the general linear model for the fixed effect of diet, with time included as a repeated measure, and the interaction term (diet×time) using Genstat 15. NS, nonsignificant; NEFA, nonesterified fatty acid. aP < 0.05 vs. d 0. bP < 0.05 vs. control group.

Mentions: Maternal weight and body condition score (BCS) at artificial insemination (d 0 of gestation) were similar between groups (pooled mean for weight, 56.3±0.5 kg; for BCS, 2.5±0.1 U) and did not deviate significantly from this level to d 65 (at d65: CP, weight=61.2±1.1 kg, BCS=2.7±0.1 U; LP, weight=58.9±1.0 kg, BCS=2.5±0.1 U). From similar initial concentrations in maternal plasma at d 0, plasma NEFAs, glucose, and lactate significantly increased, and plasma triglycerides and albumin showed a strong statistical trend to be increased, whereas plasma urea significantly decreased through early gestation in LP relative to CP ewes (Fig. 1). Despite a 50% reduction in dietary crude protein, maternal plasma amino acid concentrations did not differ between treatment groups, although some variation with time was noted (Table 2). Plasma osmolality also did not differ between groups at d 0 (pooled mean, 303±2 mOsmol/kg H2O) but was, on average, significantly increased in LP vs. CP ewes from d 28 onward (pooled mean, 323±4 vs. 303±4 mOsmol/kg H2O, respectively; P<0.001).


Maternal protein-energy malnutrition during early pregnancy in sheep impacts the fetal ornithine cycle to reduce fetal kidney microvascular development.

Dunford LJ, Sinclair KD, Kwong WY, Sturrock C, Clifford BL, Giles TC, Gardner DS - FASEB J. (2014)

Ewes fed LP diet have reduced plasma urea, but other biomarkers of nutritional status are increased. Glucose (A), lactate (A), NEFA (C), triglyceride (D), total protein (E), albumin (F), β-hydroxybutyrate (G), and urea (H) samples were obtained prior to pregnancy (d 0′) and at d 28 and 65 of gestation and were analyzed on a Randox Rx-Imola bioanalyzer. Data are means ± estimated sem for ewes fed a CP diet (n=15; open symbols) or an LP diet (n=16; solid symbols) during early gestation (d 0–65, term ∼145 d). Data were analyzed by the general linear model for the fixed effect of diet, with time included as a repeated measure, and the interaction term (diet×time) using Genstat 15. NS, nonsignificant; NEFA, nonesterified fatty acid. aP < 0.05 vs. d 0. bP < 0.05 vs. control group.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4216596&req=5

Figure 1: Ewes fed LP diet have reduced plasma urea, but other biomarkers of nutritional status are increased. Glucose (A), lactate (A), NEFA (C), triglyceride (D), total protein (E), albumin (F), β-hydroxybutyrate (G), and urea (H) samples were obtained prior to pregnancy (d 0′) and at d 28 and 65 of gestation and were analyzed on a Randox Rx-Imola bioanalyzer. Data are means ± estimated sem for ewes fed a CP diet (n=15; open symbols) or an LP diet (n=16; solid symbols) during early gestation (d 0–65, term ∼145 d). Data were analyzed by the general linear model for the fixed effect of diet, with time included as a repeated measure, and the interaction term (diet×time) using Genstat 15. NS, nonsignificant; NEFA, nonesterified fatty acid. aP < 0.05 vs. d 0. bP < 0.05 vs. control group.
Mentions: Maternal weight and body condition score (BCS) at artificial insemination (d 0 of gestation) were similar between groups (pooled mean for weight, 56.3±0.5 kg; for BCS, 2.5±0.1 U) and did not deviate significantly from this level to d 65 (at d65: CP, weight=61.2±1.1 kg, BCS=2.7±0.1 U; LP, weight=58.9±1.0 kg, BCS=2.5±0.1 U). From similar initial concentrations in maternal plasma at d 0, plasma NEFAs, glucose, and lactate significantly increased, and plasma triglycerides and albumin showed a strong statistical trend to be increased, whereas plasma urea significantly decreased through early gestation in LP relative to CP ewes (Fig. 1). Despite a 50% reduction in dietary crude protein, maternal plasma amino acid concentrations did not differ between treatment groups, although some variation with time was noted (Table 2). Plasma osmolality also did not differ between groups at d 0 (pooled mean, 303±2 mOsmol/kg H2O) but was, on average, significantly increased in LP vs. CP ewes from d 28 onward (pooled mean, 323±4 vs. 303±4 mOsmol/kg H2O, respectively; P<0.001).

Bottom Line: PEM had little measureable effect on maternal and fetal macronutrient balance (glucose, total protein, total amino acids, and lactate were unaffected) or on fetal growth.PEM decreased maternal and fetal urea concentration, which blunted fetal ornithine availability and affected fetal hepatic polyamine production.For the first time in a large animal model, we associated these nutritional effects with reduced micro- but not macrovascular development in the fetal kidney.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus